Urbanization and Health

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Slide 1:

Miss. M. Santhoshkumari M.Sc (Nursing), OBG Lecturer, RAAK Nursing & Paramedical College Puducherry URBANIZATION & HEALTH

The 2010 global goal “1000 cities 1000 lives” :

The 2010 global goal “1000 cities 1000 lives” Be part of a global movement to make cities healthier

With the campaign 1000 cities, 1000 lives, events will be organized worldwide: :

With the campaign 1000 cities, 1000 lives, events will be organized worldwide: 1000 cities: Cities around the world are called on to open up public spaces to health for one day during the week of 7 to 11 April 2010 – whether it be activities in parks, town hall meetings, clean-up campaigns, or closing off portions of streets to motorized vehicles.

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1000 lives: Citizens are asked to provide stories of urban health champions who have taken action and had a significant impact on health in their cities.

CHAMPIONING URBAN HEALTH:

CHAMPIONING URBAN HEALTH “Improving access to health services in urban areas”

WHY URBANIZATION AND HEALTH:

WHY URBANIZATION AND HEALTH Over 3 billion people live in cities. In 2007, the world’s population living in cities surpassed 50% for the first time in history, and this proportion is growing. By 2030, six out of every 10 people will be city dwellers, rising to seven out of every 10 people by 2050. Urbanization is an irreversible trend that is now part of the world in which we live.

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The theme of “urbanization and health” was selected for World Health Day in recognition of the effect urbanization has on our collective health globally and for us all individually.

Urbanization Trends :

Urbanization Trends Industrialization Global urbanization Megacities The Livable City

Urban health challenges :

Urban health challenges South-East Asia (SEA) is home to more than 1.74 billion people, almost 56% of the world population. Of these, almost 600 million or about 32% live in urban areas. The impact of urbanization on health is particularly important in the Region due to the population size and proportion of the urban poor, which was estimated to be 25% in 2009.

Environmental problems of Urbanization :

Environmental problems of Urbanization Habitat Loss Deforestation Soil erosion Water loss Biodiversity loss Ecological disruption Sewage Congestion on the road Air pollution Indoor Pollution

Urbanization and communicable diseases :

Urbanization and communicable diseases The apparently unstoppable urban growth has negatively impacted ecology, leading to the appearance, exacerbation and persistence of communicable diseases.

Communicable Diseases:

Communicable Diseases Diarrhoeal diseases Viral hepatitis Typhoid fever HIV/AIDS Tuberculosis Vector-borne infectious diseases, especially dengue fever and chikungunya. Until recently, dengue has been primarily a disease of urban areas.

Factors influencing communicable diseases in urban settings:

Factors influencing communicable diseases in urban settings Poverty in slums and unregulated areas Migration Overcrowding Rapidly depleting natural resources Poor water management Unhygienic living conditions and practices poor drainage

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inadequate sanitation uncollected solid waste Increased unsafe sex Weak health system Inadequate access to health services Fragmented public health response Lack of knowledge/education in communities Lack of basic preventive measures

Steps to deal::

Steps to deal: Scientific urban planning to ensure a healthy environment Healthy public policy Risk assessment Water management and judicious use, including proper recycling of waste water

Steps to deal::

Strengthening of urban health systems, especially efficient surveillance and response mechanisms Expanding access to quality health services Promotion of behavioural change in communities Steps to deal:

Urbanization and injuries:

Urbanization and injuries In many cities, especially in the developing world, the speed of urbanization has outpaced the ability of governments to plan land use appropriately; essential infrastructure and safe public transportation systems are usually not adequate. This leads to increasing numbers of accidents, and also causes higher loss of life in disasters.

Actions and solutions :

Actions and solutions Appropriate urban planning and safe public transportation promote healthy behaviours and safety. Good governance and law enforcement (e.g. traffic safety) reduces harm and injuries. Partnerships between sectors will make cities healthier .

Urbanization and workers’ health :

Urbanization and workers’ health

Urbanization and workers’ health :

Urbanization and workers’ health Globally, an estimated 24% of the disease burden (healthy life years lost) and an estimated 23% of all deaths are attributable to environmental factors. The three most predominant diseases in urban areas affecting migrant workers in cities—diarrhoea, respiratory infections and injuries—can be attributed to the modifiable environment.

Healthy urban lifestyles :

Healthy urban lifestyles

Water and sanitation status in urban areas :

Water and sanitation status in urban areas Urban populations in the Region have better access to water and sanitation than rural areas; 93% of urban areas have access to an improved water supply (though only 53% have household connections). The rest are supplied through public taps, protected wells, tubewells and protected springs.

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Due to the lack of a regular water supply and the fact that water connections are often outside the home, some urban dwellers have to store water in their homes. This exposes water to contamination during collection, storage and use. In addition, improper storage also leads to the breeding of disease-carrying mosquitoes.

Improve urban living conditions :

Improve urban living conditions locate houses in safe places improve housing conditions control indoor and outdoor pollution ensure safe water and improved sanitation

Build inclusive cities that are accessible and age-friendly :

Build inclusive cities that are accessible and age-friendly make public transport accessible to disabled people develop safe walkways for those with special needs build public places and buildings for easy access promote active city life and sports for all

Ensure participatory urban governance :

Ensure participatory urban governance share information about city planning for health encourage public dialogue involve communities in decision-making create opportunities for participation

Make urban areas resilient to emergencies and disasters :

Make urban areas resilient to emergencies and disasters locate hospitals in safe areas strengthen health centres to withstand known dangers prepare community emergency response improve disease surveillance

Urbanization is one of the greatest health challenges in the 21st century:

Urbanization is one of the greatest health challenges in the 21 st century

Take action now to ensure health today and for our future generations. :

Take action now to ensure health today and for our future generations.

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THANK YOU

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