CHILD PSYCHOLOGY FINAL

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CHILD PSYCHOLOGY : 

CHILD PSYCHOLOGY Presented by: SANSRITI NARAIN M.D.S 1ST YEAR

DEFINITION : 

DEFINITION PSYCHOLOGY: is the science dealing with human nature, function & phenomenon of his soul in the main. CHILD PSYCHOLOGY: is the science that deals with the mental power or interaction between the conscious &subconscious element in a child.

Aims & objectives of child psychology : 

Aims & objectives of child psychology Knowledge of the child psychology will help us to- Understand the child better Better planning &interaction Understand problems of psychosomatic origin So that child understands oral hygiene Modify child’s developmental process

THEORIES OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY : 

THEORIES OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY Classified into 2 groups: PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES Psychosexual theory by Sigmund Freud Psychosocial theory by Eric Erickson Cognitive theory by Jean Piaget BEHAVIOUR LEARNING THEORIES Classical conditioning theory by Ivan Pavlov Operant conditioning theory by B.F.Skinner Social learning theory by Albert Bandura Hierarchy of needs by Maslow

THEORIES OF PSYCHODYANAMIC DEVELOPMENT

PSYCHOANALYTICAL THEORYgiven by Sigmund Freud in 1905 : 

PSYCHOANALYTICAL THEORYgiven by Sigmund Freud in 1905 Body has 2 types of neurons: Phineuron : concerned with condition of emotion Psi neuron: concerned with storage of emotion

Freud described human mind by two models: : 

Freud described human mind by two models: TOPOGRAPHIC MODEL PSYCHIC MODEL /PSYCHIC TRIAD

TOPOGRAPHIC MODEL : 

TOPOGRAPHIC MODEL

Slide 10: 

CONCIOUS MIND- Is paying attention at that moment. PRECONCIOUS MIND- Involves ordinary memory & knowledge; things we are aware of but not paying attention at all moments UNCONCIOUS/SUBCONCIOUS MIND- Is part of mind which thinks & acts independently.

PSYCHIC TRIAD : 

PSYCHIC TRIAD DIVIDED INTO 3 PARTS: ID EGO SUPER EGO

ID : 

ID It is the basic structure of personality, serves as the reservoir of instincts. Present at birth as impulse and strives for immediate pleasure & gratification. E.g.; need to eat is based on pleasure principle i.e. the child wants food irrespective of external circumstances.

EGO : 

EGO It is a part of self that is concerned with overall functioning & organization of personality Capacity to test reality Utilization of ego defense mechanism Memory, language & creativity. E.g. hunger must wait until food is given

SUPER EGO : 

SUPER EGO It is part of personality that is internalized representation of the values & morals of the society as taught by parents & others. It is essentially an individual conscience & it judges whether the action is right or wrong.

PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT : 

PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Freud outlined 5 stages of manifestations of the sexual development:

Oral stage:(0-1.5 years) : 

Oral stage:(0-1.5 years) Erogenous zone in focus: Mouth Gratifying activities: Nursing, eating, mouth movements i.e. sucking, biting & swallowing. Interaction with environment: the child’s personality is controlled by the id & demands immediate gratification , responsive nurturing is the key. Symptoms of oral fixation: smoking, nail biting, drinking, sarcasm

Anal stage (1.5-3 years) : 

Anal stage (1.5-3 years) Erogenous zone in focus: Anus Gratifying activities: Bowel movements &withholding of such movement. Interaction with environment: Toilet training. Symptoms of anal fixation: Anal-expulsive personality: sloppy, disorganized, reckless, careless & defiant. Anal-retentive personality: clean, orderly & intolerant to uncleanliness.

Phallic stage (4-5 years) : 

Phallic stage (4-5 years) Erogenous zone in focus: Genitals Gratifying activities: Genital fondling Interaction with environment: child’s feeling of greater attachment with parent of opposite sex Symptoms of phallic fixation: MEN: Anxiety & guilty feeling about opposite sex & narcissism.

Slide 19: 

Oedipus complex: tendency of young boy child being attached more to mother than father. Electra complex: tendency of girl child developing more affection for father than mother.

Latency (5years-puberty) : 

Latency (5years-puberty) Erogenous zone in focus: None Interaction with environment: Children focus energy on other aspects of life e.g. culture forming beliefs & values, developing friendship & engaging in sports.

Genital stage( from puberty onwards) : 

Genital stage( from puberty onwards) Erogenous zone in focus: Genital Gratifying activities: Heterosexual relationships. Interaction with environment: marked by pursuit for relationships. Symptoms of genital fixation: does not cause fixation. If difficulty persists damage was done at earlier stages of oral, anal & phallic stages.

MERIT OF FREUD’S THEORY : 

MERIT OF FREUD’S THEORY One of the earliest and the most comprehensive theory of life long psychological development.

DEMERITS OF FREUD’S THEORY : 

DEMERITS OF FREUD’S THEORY Freud formulated this theory by his extensive studies on adult psychological patients & hence its extrapolation to children is not very justified. The theory is based on obsessed observations of the psychologist.

PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY : 

PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY BY: Erik.H.Erickson (1963)

Slide 25: 

8 STAGES OF PHYCHOSOCIAL THEORY

STAGE 1: Infancy- Age 0 to 1 year( HOPE) : 

STAGE 1: Infancy- Age 0 to 1 year( HOPE) Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust Description: Infant depends on others for food, warmth & affection. Blind faith on parents. Positive outcome: develops secure attachment with the parents & learns to trust the environment Negative outcome: develops mistrust towards people, environment & towards themselves.

Dental applications; : 

Dental applications; Development of separation anxiety in the child. If necessary to provide dental treatment at this age it should be done in the presence of parent, preferably parent holding the child.

STAGE-2 :Toddler- age 1 to 2 years(WILL) : 

STAGE-2 :Toddler- age 1 to 2 years(WILL) Crisis: Autonomy vs. Shame Description: Toddlers learn to walk, talk, use toilets themselves. Positive outcome: If parents encourage, child develops confidence to cope with future situations . Negative outcome: If parents disapprove or overprotective, child feels ashamed & doubts his abilities.

Dental applications : 

Dental applications Child is moving away from the mother but still will retreat to her in threatening situations. So parent’s presence is essential in dental clinic. Child takes pleasure to do task himself. So dentist should obtain co-operation from him according to his will.

Early childhood- age 2 to 6 years(PURPOSE) : 

Early childhood- age 2 to 6 years(PURPOSE) Crisis: Initiative vs. Guilt Description: Children develop motor skills & interact with people around them. Positive outcome: If parents encourage with discipline, children accept without guilt that certain things are not allowed & will use imagination in make belief roles. Negative outcome: If not, they develop guilt & feel wrong to be independent.

Dental applications : 

Dental applications Child is encouraged to view this visit as a new adventure & encouraged to genuine success in it. If this visit fails it will lead to sense of guilt in child Inherently teachable & can be taught various things in dental set up. Independence has to be reinforced rather than dependence

Elementary & Middle school years- Age-6 to 12 years (COMPETENCE) : 

Elementary & Middle school years- Age-6 to 12 years (COMPETENCE) Crisis: Competency vs. inferiority Description: Children learn to make things, use tools & acquire skills. Positive outcome: If discovers pleasure in intellectual stimulation, being productive & seek success they develop competence. Negative outcome: If not, they develop inferiority complex.

Dental applications : 

Dental applications Child drive for sense of industry & accomplishment, co-operation with treatment can be obtained. Co-operation at this stage depends on child’s understanding of what is needed to please dentists/parents, peer group’s support & positive reinforcement by the dentist.

Stage 5- Adolescence – Age 12 to 18 years (FIDELITY) : 

Stage 5- Adolescence – Age 12 to 18 years (FIDELITY) Crisis: Identity vs. Role confusion Description: It is the time when one asks WHO AM I? Positive outcome: If adolescent solves this conflict he emerges with strong identity & ready to plan for future. Negative outcome: If not, adolescent sinks into confusion unable to make decisions and choices

Dental applications : 

Dental applications Behavior management of adolescents is difficult. Any orthodontic treatment carried out only if child wants it as parental authority is rejected at this stage. Approval of peer group is extremely important.

Stage 6- Young adulthood-Age 19 to 40 years (LOVE) : 

Stage 6- Young adulthood-Age 19 to 40 years (LOVE) Crisis: Intimacy vs. Isolation Description: The most important relations are Love relationships. Positive outcome: Adult individuals can form close relationships & share feelings if they have sense of identity. Negative outcome: If not, they fear commitment, feel isolated & unable to depend on others.

Dental applications : 

Dental applications External appearance are very important as it helps in attainment of intimate relation. Young adults seek orthodontic treatment to correct their dental appearances & this is characterized as internal motivation.

Stage 7 -Middle adulthood Age-40 to 65 years (CARE) : 

Stage 7 -Middle adulthood Age-40 to 65 years (CARE) Crisis: Creativity vs. Stagnation Description: Adult’s ability to look outside oneself & care for others through parenting. Positive outcome: People solve problems through having & nurturing children or helping next generation. Negative outcome: If not, then people remain self centered & experience stagnation later in life.

Stage 8- Late adulthood Age- 65 to death (WISDOM) : 

Stage 8- Late adulthood Age- 65 to death (WISDOM) Crisis: Integrity vs. Despair Description: Old age is a time to reflect on one’s own life. Positive outcome: If the adult has achieved a sense of fulfillment & is at harmony with one’s inner self ,he will accept death with integrity, Negative outcome: If not, individual will despair & fear death.

MERITS OF ERIK ERIKSON’S THEORY : 

MERITS OF ERIK ERIKSON’S THEORY Based on age wise classification of an individual. Hence easy to apply at any stage of development. Simple & comprehensive to understand.

DEMERITS OF ERIK ERIKSON’S THEORY. : 

DEMERITS OF ERIK ERIKSON’S THEORY. Based on extreme ends of personality.

COGNITIVE THEORY : 

COGNITIVE THEORY By : JEAN PIAGET (1952) Based on how children &adolescents think & acquire knowledge

According to Piaget the following mechanisms help the child to progress from one stage to another: : 

According to Piaget the following mechanisms help the child to progress from one stage to another: Operation: An action that the child performs mentally & is reversible. Schemata: represents a dynamic process of differentiation & reorganization of knowledge. Assimilation: New object interpreted in terms of idea or action the child has already acquired. Accommodation: An individual’s tendency to modify action to fit into a new situation. Equilibrium: state established as new knowledge to the child.

Sequence of development has been categorized into four major stages: : 

Sequence of development has been categorized into four major stages: Sensorimotor stage (0 to 2 yrs) Pre-operational stage (2 to 6 yrs) Concrete operation stage (6 to 12 yrs) Formal operation stage (11 to 15 yrs)

DENTAL APPLICATION: : 

DENTAL APPLICATION: SENSORIMOTOR STAGE: child begins to interact with environment; can be given toys while sitting in dental clinic or chair in his/her hand.

PREOPERATIONAL STAGE : 

PREOPERATIONAL STAGE CONSTRUCTIVISM: child explores things surveys dental chair, airway syringe etc. COGNITIVE EQUILIBRIUM: child explained about equipment &allowed to deal with it. ANIMISM: co-relates with other familiar objects.

CONCRETE OPERATIONS: : 

CONCRETE OPERATIONS: Concrete instruction i.e. brushing technique . Abstract instruction like retainer wearing & cleaning every night. CENTERING: allow to hold mirror to see what is happening. EGO-CENTERING: child achieves level of understanding &involves in the treatment.

FORMAL OPERATIONS: : 

FORMAL OPERATIONS: Peer influence & abstract thinking increase. They play an important role in orthodontic appliances and braces. Acceptance from peers can be used for motivation for dental treatment.

MERITS OF PIAGET’S THEORY : 

MERITS OF PIAGET’S THEORY Most comprehensive theory of cognitive development. The theory propagated that we can learn as much about children’s intellectual development from examining their incorrect & correct answers to item tests.

DEMERITS OF PIAGET’S THEORY : 

DEMERITS OF PIAGET’S THEORY Underestimates children’s abilities’ Overestimates age differences in thinking. Vagueness about the process of change. Underestimates the role of the social environment.

THEORIES OF LEARNING & DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR : 

THEORIES OF LEARNING & DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR

HIERARCHY OF NEEDS : 

HIERARCHY OF NEEDS By: MASLOW (1954)

Maslow believed in the self actualization theory,i.e. the need to understand the totality of a person : 

Maslow believed in the self actualization theory,i.e. the need to understand the totality of a person Needs are arranged in hierarchy As one general type need is satisfied, another higher order need emerges. Motivation is constantly required & never ending, fluctuating complex. Pain reduction, tension avoidance & pleasure act are sources of motivating behavior.

The Hierarchy of Needs Triangle : 

The Hierarchy of Needs Triangle Level 1: Level 2: Level 3: Level 4: Level 5: Physiologic needs- Includes those needs essential to survival such as reproduction, hunger,thirst,fear etc. Security- Includes the needs for shelter & employment. Social- Incorporates the need to be loved & have sense of belonging. Esteem- Includes personal needs to acquire personal worth, competency &skills. Self actualization- Is the attainment of self realization.

MERITS OF HIERARCHY OF NEEDS : 

MERITS OF HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Based on totality of personality development

DEMERITS OF HIERARCHY OF NEEDS : 

DEMERITS OF HIERARCHY OF NEEDS This theory is difficult and impractical to apply in children in dental situations as the child has ever changing personality.

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY : 

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY By: ALBERT BANDURA (1963)

Essential to the theory are the concepts of modeling &reinforcement thus divided into: : 

Essential to the theory are the concepts of modeling &reinforcement thus divided into: Attention process: the model should gain attention of child . Retention process: child must be able to imitate the model’s behavior. Motor reproduction: Amount of observational learning of child depends on level of skills attained by the child. Reinforcement & motivation: Positive incentives are provided.

Dental applications : 

Dental applications Children readily acquire any behavior that they observe closely & which are not too complex. Observational learning is an important tool in management of dental treatment. E.g. Older sibling undergoing dental treatment without complaint /uncooperation. Maternal attitude influences the child.

MERITS OF SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY. : 

MERITS OF SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY. Compared to operant & classical conditioning this theory is: Less reductionistic Provides more explanatory concepts Encompasses a broader range of phenomena.

DEMERITS OF SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY. : 

DEMERITS OF SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY. Based only on observation of behavior of a person with overemphasis on the role of the environment.

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING THEORY : 

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING THEORY By: IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV (1927)

THE CONCEPT: Pavlov’s “psychic reflex” came to be called conditioned reflex. : 

THE CONCEPT: Pavlov’s “psychic reflex” came to be called conditioned reflex. Apparently unassociated stimuli could produce the reflexive behavior. Pavlov in experiments showed what could be significant about a dog salivating when tone was presented? He established a bond between tone & salivation through conditioning.

Principles involved in the process: : 

Principles involved in the process: Acquisition: learning a new response from the environment through conditioning. Generalization: the process of conditioning is evoked by a band of stimuli . Extinction: of the conditioned behavior results if asso. Between conditioned & unconditioned reflex is not reinforced. Discrimination: opposite of generalization.

Principles of this theory can be used in following Behavior of animals & human behavior. : 

Principles of this theory can be used in following Behavior of animals & human behavior. Developing good habits Breaking habits & conditioned fear. Psychotherapy –to decondition emotional fear. Developing positive attitudes. Teaching alphabets.

Dental application : 

Dental application Sound of the hand piece and sight of dentist.

MERIT OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING : 

MERIT OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Simple to understand &very applicable to a child in dental clinic.

OPERANT CONDITIONING : 

OPERANT CONDITIONING By: B.F.Skinner (1938)

According to this theory : 

According to this theory Behavior that operates or controls the environment is called Operant. Reinforcement is the critical factor for learning . The relationship between operant & consequences that follows them is called Contingency.

Four basic type of operant conditioning are: : 

Four basic type of operant conditioning are: Positive reinforcement: a pleasant consequence follows the response. Negative reinforcement: involves removal of unpleasant stimuli following a response. Omission: removal of the pleasant response after a particular response. Punishment: introduction of an aversive stimulus to decrease undesirable behavior.

MERITS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING : 

MERITS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING Applicable on children who are difficult to manage. Useful in instillation of life long positive behavior in child dental patient.

DEMERIT OF OPERANT CONDITIONING : 

DEMERIT OF OPERANT CONDITIONING Overemphasis on use of negative rein forcers and punishment in dental clinic.

MAHLER’S THEORY : 

MAHLER’S THEORY The theory categorizes the early childhood object relations to understand personality development.

Period of childhood is divided into three stages: : 

Period of childhood is divided into three stages: Normal autistic phase Normal symbiotic phase Separation-individualization phase

Normal Autistic Phase (0-1 year) : 

Normal Autistic Phase (0-1 year) State of half sleep/half wakefulness Phase involves achievement of equilibrium with environment.

Normal Symbiotic Phase (3-4 wk to 4-5 months) : 

Normal Symbiotic Phase (3-4 wk to 4-5 months) Infant slightly aware of the care giver.

Separation-Individualization process (5- 36 months) : 

Separation-Individualization process (5- 36 months) Phase is divided into 4 sub-phases: Differentiation (5-10 months) Practicing period (10-16 months) Rapprochement (16-24 months) Consolidation & object constancy 24-36 months)

MERIT OF MAHLER’S THEORY : 

MERIT OF MAHLER’S THEORY Can be applied to children

DEMERIT OF MAHLER’S THEORY : 

DEMERIT OF MAHLER’S THEORY Not a very comprehensive theory.

References : 

References Text book of Pedodontics 2nd edition by: SHOBHA TANDON Management of child behavior by: Louis W. Ripa Comprehensive pediatric dentistry by: Nikhil Marwah. Principles and practice of Pedodontics by: Aarthi Rao.

Slide 86: 

THANK YOU!