Slide 1: Social problems faced in agriculture and their solution A PRESENTATION ON Slide 2: one-third of population and three-quarters of poor live in rural areas in developing countries. Agriculture accounts for 30-60 percent of GDP. Agricultural trade reforms are key to global trade negotiations and are expected to generate large welfare grains. ‘IT FEEDS THE WORLD’. Importance of agriculture Problems faced in agriculture: Problems faced in agriculture Ecology/technology The global economic framework Land for the farmers Natural hazards Technology developments: Technology developments Development of transgenic seeds Crop resistant to pests , alkalinity, drought, climatic changes etc., DNA recombinant technology Gene cloning technique Plant tissue culture Under water agriculture terrace farming Floating agriculture Is technology developed for agriculture really efficient? : Is technology developed for agriculture really efficient? Technology is only a temporary solution : Technology is only a temporary solution A constant parade of new crop varieties Productivity period is less though the quantity is more during initial times Depreciation of nutrient value Affects biodiversity since it is against nature Slide 7: Current concerns Slide 8: Agricultural credits Agricultural universities Rural electrification Improved rural infra structure Continuous irrigation High yielding variety seeds Consolidation of land holdings Land reforms s olutions Socio-economic problems: Socio-economic problems Exploitation of agriculture-based countries by the industrial countries Less value for raw materials in the global market Poverty of farmers Social problems: Social problems Insecurity of land tenure Lack of access to land Unequal land distribution and the exploitation of the landless peasants, is the major cause of rural poverty and insecurity affected by development projects (such as dam, forestry and mining projects) Misuse of resources Lack of scientific knowledge Social problems (contd.,) Slide 11: Ethical commitment openness to partnerships cooperation Agro-farmers, a sorrowful plight: Agro-farmers, a sorrowful plight Farmers who work hard for the yield do not benefit much from these. Land owners pay them very little, poverty begins here. Internal conflicts between the farmers urbanization due to poor economy little control over what they produce. The reason: they are under the control of the big food production companies. Lack of support: Lack of support Government loan schemes for farmers must be improvised. Traditional farmers must be provided with quality seeds Awareness campaigns should be conducted for the farmers to update them about the new agricultural practices farmers should have a separate union and must be given powers More NGOs to promote agriculture LAND REFORMS: LAND REFORMS Land reform involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership. Government should provide land for poor peasants thus encouraging them. Slide 15: In Vietnam,agricultural GDP grew by 4.6% during 1990-1998 and rural poverty declined from 66% to 45% In uganda,export crop production surged following marketing liberalization in the early 1990s,and rural poverty fell from 60% to 39% Growth of agricultural exports reduces rural poverty Slide 16: Farmland Protection and Nonmarket Values Despite the relatively small fraction of the American landscape dedicated to urban uses (3 percent or less), there is growing concern about the disappearance of farmland in some parts of the country. Slide 17: Environmental Amenities open space soil conservation Biodiversity wildlife habitat recreational opportunities scenic vistas isolation from congestion watershed protection flood control groundwater recharge These "rural amenities" include : Slide 18: Rural Development Amenities rural income and employment viable rural communities diversified local economy Social Amenities maintaining traditional country life maintaining a small farm structure maintaining cultural heritage. INDIAN AGRICULTURAL SCENARIO: INDIAN AGRICULTURAL SCENARIO STRENGTHS WEAKNESS Rich biodiversity Arable land Climate Strong and well dispersed research and extension system Fragmentation of land Low technology inputs Unsustainable water management Poor infrastructure Low value addition Slide 20: OPPORTUNITIES THREATS Bridgeable yield crops Exports Agro-based industry Horticulture Untapped potential Unsustainable resource use Unsustainable regional development Imports FOR EVERGREEN AGRICULTURE: FOR EVERGREEN AGRICULTURE UNSUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE SHOULD BE GIVEN UP ‘EVERGREEN REVOLUTION’ PATHWAY SHOULD BE ADOPTED PRODUCTIVITY GRAINS SHOULD BE EXTENDED TO EASTERN INDIA Marketing reforms: Marketing reforms Higher priority should be given to it. Essential if farmers are to get higher prices for their crops. Consumers can get food grains and other agricultural commodities at a reasonable price. In any scheme designed to ensure remunerative prices for farmers ,incentives have a significant place. MISUSE: MISUSE Many ecologically unsound public policies led to the misuse of natural resources. For example, the supply of free electricity has led to over exploitation of ground water in Punjab,Haryana , and western Uttar pradesh . There are two major pathways to achieve ‘evergreen revolution’: 1.organic farming 2.green agriculture Thus agriculture paves way for the growth of economy and therefore any reforms/policies for the development of agriculture should be well used and not misused: T hus agriculture paves way for the growth of economy and therefore any reforms/policies for the development of agriculture should be well used and not misused Slide 26: DONE BY: SANDHYA.A SRI LAKSHMI.S Thank you!