artificial intelligence


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TOPICS Introduction History of Artificial Intelligence Historic Attempts Why is AI Limitations of Human Mind Robotics Robots as part of Human Society Applications Advantages Disadvantages Conclusion

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines finds solutions to complex problems in a more human-like fashion. This generally involves borrowing characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a computer friendly way.


5 th century BC Aristotle invents syllogistic logic, the first formal deductive reasoning system. 16 th century AD Rabbi Loew supposedly invents the Golem, an artificial man made out of clay BRIEF HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 17th century Descartes proposes animals are machines and founds a scientific paradigm that will dominate for 250 years. Pascal creates the first mechanical calculator in 1642 18th century Wolfgang von Kempelen “invents” fake chess-playing machine, The Turk

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19 th century George Boole creates a binary algebra to represent “laws of thought” Charles Babbage and Lady Lovelace develop sophisticated programmable mechanical computers, precursor to modern electronic computers. 20th century Karel Kapek writes “Rossum’s Universal Robots”, coining the English word “robot” Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts lay partial groundwork for neural networks Turing writes “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” – proposal of Turing test


HISTORIC ATTEMPTS The original story, published by Mary Shelley, in 1818, describes the attempt of a true scientist, Victor Frankenstein, to create life.


Computers are fundamentally well suited to performing mechanical computations, using fixed programmed rules. This allows artificial machines to perform simple monotonous tasks efficiently and reliably, which humans are ill-suited to. ` WHY IS AI


LIMITATIONS OF HUMAN MIND Object recognition. People cannot properly explain how they recognize objects. Face recognition. Cannot be passed on to another person by explanation. Naming of colours. Based on learning, not on absolute standards.


ROBOTICS 1970 Shakey (SRI) was driven by a remote-controlled computer, which formulated plans for moving and acting. It took about half an hour to move Shakey one meter The Ant, has 17 sensors. They are designed to work in colonies.

Robots as part of the human society : :

As robots are getting the appearance and functionalities of humans and animals there is a growing need to make them interact and communicate as a sociable partner rather than a tool. This trend is requiring that robots would be able to communicate, cooperate, and learn from people in familiar human-oriented terms. Robots as part of the human society :


They stretch from the military for autonomous control and target identification, to the entertainment industry for computer games and robotic pets. Lets also not forget big establishments dealing with huge amounts of information such as hospitals , banks and insurances , who can use AI to predict customer behavior and detect trends. Applications…


They will probably be increasingly used in the field of medicine. A knowledge based expert system, which can cross-reference symptoms and diseases will greatly improve the accuracy of diagnostics. Object recognition will also be a great aid to doctors. Along with images from cats cans or X-ray machines, they will be able to get preliminary analysis of those images. This of course will be possible only if people solve legal questions that arise by giving power to a machine to control or influence the health of a human ADVANTAGES


Self-modifying, when combined with self-replicating, can lead to dangerous, unexpected results, such as a new and frequently mutating computer virus. DISADVANTAGES:


CONCLUSION Idea of Artificial Intelligence is being replaced by Artificial life, or anything with a form or body. The consensus among scientists is that a requirement for life is that it has an embodiment in some physical form, but this will change. Programs may not fit this requirement for life yet.

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I hope man should invent robot but not transform to robot .

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