Blood Diamond

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Blood Diamond:

Blood Diamond By Samira

Slide 2:

Introduction Came from area which is controlled by armed groups Recognized as rebel in eyes of the government Put on market & sell in violent matters These abuses include amputation, murder & child labour Converted diamond, Conflict diamond & War diamond are additional names

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Why Blood Diamonds ? Sold & used to buy weapons & help to fight against government Finance to terrorism or civil war Mined by forceful labour & traded illegally by terrorist

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Why Blood Diamonds ? Terrorist started enslaved people & children to force them work on coal mines, to fund their interests

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3/22/11 Recognised as a global problem in a nations Most of blood diamond mines are in war zones Why Blood Diamonds ?

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History of blood diamond First Diamond was found by a young boy named Stephanus Erasmus in South Africa Gave it to his neighbour named Niekerk Niekerk gives it to traveling salesman Dislayed at World Fair in Paris in 1867, & declared to be a diamond and named ‘Eureka’ !!!

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More diamonds were found during the time & this was the start of the history of bloodshed in Africa History of blood diamond

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History of blood diamond Mining become a big time activity Realising worth & preciousness of diamonds Local people came to know about it, & war among themselves

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Issues surrounding blood diamond? Revolution in war torn areas of Africa by financing illegal activity, including sales of arms & drugs Profits, used by rebels & warlords to continue instilling fear & violence across many areas in Africa

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Often rebels charge through towns, taking men as prisoners or forcing them to join theirs, killing women & children on the spot, & burning homes & livestock ! Issues surrounding blood diamonds?

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Child soldiers are given drugs to overcome their fear & reluctance to participate unatrocities Many are forced to live & work in mines & the rate of HIV/AIDS infection is very high !!! Issues surrounding blood diamonds?

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Diamond mines are open pits where salts, heavy minerals, organisms, oil & chemicals from mining equipment freely leach into ground-water, endangering people in nearby mining camps & villages, as well as downstream plants & animals…. Issues surrounding blood diamonds?

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Issues surrounding blood diamonds? More than one-half of the world's diamonds are processed in India where many of the cutters and polishers are bonded child laborers

The Blood Diamond is most severe problem in Africa:

The Blood Diamond is most severe problem in Africa Nations Affected by Blood Diamond Angola Liberia Democratic Republic Congo Sierra Leone Ivory Coast

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How did “Blood Diamonds” affect Africa ? “Blood diamonds” left more than 50,000 people dead !

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Left more than half a million refugees…. & thousands of amputees !

Sierra Leone:

Sierra Leone Sierra Leone, country in West Africa Major source of hard currency - diamond mining 1991 - A rebel group entered the country & took control of it’s mining cities

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Revolutionary United Front (RUF) rebels attempted to overthrow the government, & an illegal diamond trade was used to fund the war The group cut off thousands of hands & feet to show their power. They even cut off the hands of children and infants ! More than 50,000 people were killed…

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Blocking Blood Diamond in Diamond Market May 2000 Meeting of diamond producing countries of South Africa at Kimberley, South Africa Diamond industry representative, NGO & United Nation Government officially met How to halt illegal trade ??? Establish method to eliminate blood diamond trade Assure buyers that diamonds they are buying are conflict free diaomonds

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For every hand in marriage, another hand is taken away

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Identified issue of African Blood Diamonds being used as a source of funding for civil wars in Africa in 1998 July 2000, World Diamond Congress issues a world wide ban on trade of “Blood Diamond” or “Conflict Diamond” United Nations (UN) & African Blood Diamonds !

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March 13, 2002 given approval by All rough diamonds would be certified as coming from a non-conflict source Action by the US following UN resolutions United States is the largest consumer of diamonds in the world ! Approval by United Nations

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January 18, 2001 : President Clinton issued Executive Order 13194 prohibiting importation of rough diamonds from Sierra Leone May 22, 2001 : President Bush issued Executive Order 13213 prohibiting importation of rough diamonds from Liberia July 29, 2003 : Clean Diamond Trade Act (CDTA) "As consumer of a majority of world’s supply of diamonds, United States has an obligation help to break link between diamonds, conflict & press for implementation of an effective solution .“ US has acted in accordance with UN resolutions :

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Kimberley Certification Process Scheme (KPCS) January 17 – 18, 2001 Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was establish – an international diamond certification scheme

Kimberley Certification Process System:

Kimberley Certification Process System 2003 System came into existence Demand for “Certification of Origin” Form issued by the government Differentiate between blood diamond & other legal diamond Proof that diamond are created, sold & exported through in legal channel

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International certification system strictly regulating export & import Accept officially only sealed packages of diamonds Certified as coming from a non-conflict source Kimberley Certification Process

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How did “Blood Diamonds” affect India ? World's largest centres for processing & polishing diamonds Industry employs nearly one million people Generates more than $6.5bn in foreign exchange UN experts is in the Indian capital Delhi says “There are indications some Indian diamond dealers may be involved in smuggling blood diamonds" There are fears blood diamonds are entering Indian market indirectly, from trading centres in London & Israel

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How did “Blood Diamond” affect India ? Diamond industry is fastest growing in World Employ more than a million people

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Sale of blood diamonds on black market from Ivory Coast and Liberia Banned from trading by the UN Show in Surat & Gujarat 92% of the world's diamonds are polished India is expected to be chosen by the United Nations to take over the Kimberley Process - to stop trade in African blood diamonds How did “Blood Diamonds” affect India ?

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Blood diamonds are not only issue threatening the Indian government's credibility Campaigners say it continues to ignore Dickensian working conditions & use of child labour India's Save Childhood Foundation estimates that diamond workshops employ up to 30,000 children

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