Eat Smart to Excel

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Category: Sports
     
 

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This presentation highlights the significance of Nutrition in Sports.

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Presentation Transcript

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Eat Smart To Excel

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Reasons for exercising To keep fit To participate regularly in a sport To reach the peak level of your sport Good nutrition, an essential to perform at your best Good Nutrition - An Essential

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It is a science that requires a solid understanding of the nutritional factors effecting performance, recovery and health Knowledge of the nutritional value of food and fluids necessary skills to implement appropriate nutritional strategies into daily training and competition Sports Nutrition

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In India, the science of Sports Nutrition is relatively new and specialized efforts of establishing nutritional principles for a sportsperson, has gained momentum over the last two decades. Evolution of Sports Nutrition in India

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Sports Category Power games (Heavy weight) Endurance Events Power games (Medium weight) Team games Power games (Light weight) Events of light weight categories Skilled games Examples Boxing, shot put Marathon, rowing Weight lifting, discus throw Hockey, water polo Judo, hammer throw Gymnastics, table tennis Shooting, archery Classification of Sports

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Sports Category Power games (Heavy weight) Endurance Events Power games (Medium weight) Team games Power games (Light weight) Events of light weight categories Skilled games Energy Requirement / day 6000 kcal / day and above 5200 kcal / day 4500 kcal / day 4500 kcal / day Upto 3600 kcal / day Upto 3600 kcal / day Upto 3600 kcal / day Energy Requirement

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Carbohydrates yield 4 kcal / g Proteins also yield 4 kcal / g Fats yield 9 kcal / g Fuel Source for aerobic exercise – Carbohydrates and fats anaerobic exercise – Carbohydrates Protein is used as a fuel source only during starvation or when training on a low carbohydrate diet. This leads to substantial loss of lean body mass. Fuels for Exercise

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Carbohydrates are present in our body as blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen stores High glycogen stores helps a person to exercise harder and longer Low glycogen stores affects a person’s performance Carbohydrates

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Low glycogen stores lead to: Early fatigue Reduced training intensity Reduced training gains Poor performance Increased injury risk Slow recovery Over training symptoms, if chronic Low Glycogen Stores

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Refueling glycogen stores varies with: Present glycogen store status Intensity and duration of exercise Carbohydrate intake Training experience Glycogen storing capacity is 20% more in a trained sportsperson. Glycogen Stores-Replenishment

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60% of total calories should come from Carbohydrates. Eg:(60/100) x 2000 = 1200 kcal i.e. 1200/4=300 g of carbohydrate Requirement may vary with: Present glycogen status Diet Training experience Carbohydrate Requirement

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Glycaemic index (GI) is the speed of carbohydrate absorption and rate of the resulting rise in blood sugar. Low GI : <40 Medium GI : 40-60 High GI : 60-100 Glycaemic Index of Foods

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Carbohydrate Consumption-Quantity and Time

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Research Study – Victoria Institute (Australia)

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Foods rich in carbohydrates: Whole cereals, their products, Pulses Roots and tubers, fruits Sugar, jaggery and honey. Carbohydrates - Rich Sources

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Proteins make up part of every cell in the body. Tendons, hair, skin and nails are made of protein. They are required for making enzymes and hormones and for building muscles and repairing damaged tissues. Proteins

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Aminoacids are the building blocks of proteins. They are of 2 types: Essential – should be provided in diet. Methionine, Tryptophan, Threonine, Valine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Phenylalanine Nonessential Aminoacids

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Normally 15 % of total calories should come from proteins. Eg:(15/100) x 2000 = 300 kcal i.e. 300/4= 75 g Requirement may vary with: Type Intensity Frequency of exercise Protein Requirements Normally 15 % of total calories should come from proteins. Eg:(15/100) x 2000 = 300 kcal i.e. 300/4= 75 g Requirement may vary with: Type Intensity Frequency of exercise Protein Requirements

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During exercise an enzyme is triggered that oxidises aminoacids. In muscle building, protein requirement is high in order to: compensate for protein breakdown and for muscle growth. Novice body builders need 40% more protein than experienced body builders. Protein Demands for Muscle Building

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International Conference on Foods, Nutrition and Sports Performance (1991) recommends: 1.2-1.4 g/kg body weight – Endurance activities 1.4-1.7 g/kg body weight – Strength and Power activities Protein Recommendation

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Maintaining carbohydrate intake and opting for low fat foods is the key to muscle building. As carbohydrate intake increases, protein requirement decreases. Muscle mass gains do not increase in a linear fashion with increase protein intake. On reaching optimal intake, surplus protein is not converted into muscle. Key to Muscle Building

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Samples-Strength athletes Group 1 - Low protein i.e. 0.86 g/kg Group 2 - Medium protein i.e. 1.40 g/kg Group 3 - High protein i.e. 2.40 g/kg Study period – 13 days Result : Group 1 - muscle mass Groups 2 and 3 - muscle mass No further gains were made by increasing the protein from 1.4-2.4 g/kg Study conducted at McMaster University

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Biological value (BV) of protein foods indicates how closely matched the proportion of aminoacids is to the body’s requirements. It is the percentage of protein retained by the body for use in growth and tissue maintenance. Egg white has a BV of 100 Biological Value of Protein Foods

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Animal foods like meat, fish and egg. Plant foods like pulses, oilseeds and nuts. Milk and milk products Proteins - Rich Sources

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Body Composition Muscle/ Body fat/ Lean body tissue Adipose tissue Body fat is non-functional in terms of sports performance. It reduces speed, power and mechanical efficiency. Fats

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Ideal Body Fat Percentage

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Hormonal Imbalance in both sexes Amenorrhoea Infertility Reduced bone density Increased risk of osteoporosis Dangers of Low Body Fat Hormonal Imbalance in both sexes Amenorrhoea Infertility Reduced bone density Increased risk of osteoporosis Dangers of Low Body Fat

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International Conference on Foods, Nutrition and Sports Performance (1991) recommends: – 15-30% of total calories should come from fats. Eg:(30/100) x 2000 = 600 kcal i.e. 600/9 = 67 g of fat Fat Requirements

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Saturated:Monounsaturated:Polyunsaturated 1 : 1 : 1 Most harmful fat – Trans fatty acids because of its effect on body lipids. It lowers HDL (good cholesterol) and increases LDL (bad cholesterol). Fats - Types

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Rich sources of fat: Oils, butter, margarine, cheese, organ meat, fatty fish and nuts and oilseeds Fats – Rich Sources

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Body water is lost as sweat during exercise. Purpose of sweating – thermoregulation. Water lost should be replenished. If not it results in dehydration. Water

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Dehydration affects performance. It results in: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea Dizziness, laboured breathing, weakness, confusion Heat stroke Dangers of Dehydration

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3 – 5 litres of water a day Body should be hydrated well before, during and after workouts. NEVER WAIT TILL YOU ARE THIRSTY Water Requirements

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Ideal Sports Drinks Isotonic - 4 to 8 g sugar/100ml (or) Hypotonic - < 4 g sugar/100 ml with Sodium concentration - 40 to 110 mg/100 ml Sports Drinks

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In case of people with suboptimal intakes, vitamin and mineral supplements help in improving performance. MORE DOES NOT MEAN BETTER!!! Supplements

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Creatine monohydrate Whey protein Fat burners Chromium picolinate Beta Hydroxy Methyl Butyrate (HMB) Meal Replacement Products (MRP) Supplements & Ergogenic Aids

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Supplements can never substitute a balanced meal. Take supplements only on a doctor’s or dietitian's advice. Supplements – The Essence

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Thankyou

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