Italia Paestum1 Archaeological site


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YOU CAN DOWNLOAD THIS PRESENTATION HERE: SLIDESHARE LINK: Thank you! Paestum is a unique archaeological site, not just due to the presence of the three exceptionally well-preserved temples, but also due to the historical landscape in which it is situated. The ruins of Paestum are famous for their three ancient Greek temples in the Doric order, dating from about 600 to 450 BC


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PAESTUM 1 Archaeological site


The ruins of Paestum are famous for their three ancient Greek temples in the Doric order, dating from about 600 to 450 BC


Paestum was a major ancient Greek city on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Magna Graecia. After its foundation by Greek colonists under the name of  Poseidonia  it was eventually conquered by the local  Lucanians  and later the Romans. The Lucanians renamed it to  Paistos  and the Romans gave the city its current name.  It was abandoned in the Early Middle Ages, and left undisturbed and largely forgotten until the eighteenth century. Paestum is a trove of innumerable archaeological finds and decorative artifacts – many of which can be viewed inside the National Archaeological Museum. UNESCO World Heritage site since 1998 Cercis siliquastrum , commonly known as the Judas tree


Temple of Athena, known also as Temple of Ceres


This is the only temple where we can be certain about the identity of the deity to which it was dedicated: Athena, the goddess of crafts and warfare. The temple of the patron goddess is situated at the highest point of the city, to the north of the public area which it overlooks. The first generation of colonists constructed a small building in honour of the goddess (known as the “ oikos ”). In about 500 BC, a monu -mental temple was built which has been preserved until the cornice of the roof. The inner part (known as “ cella ”), which is higher than the surrounding colonnade, was accessible through a large antechamber (“ pronaos ”) decorated with Ionic columns


Temple of Athena


Piscina ceremonial in Forum


Remains of columns from the Temple of Peace


There are few among the cities of Magna Graecia of which we hear less in history; and the only evidence of the flourishing condition and prosperity of Poseidonia, is to be found in the numbers of its coins and in the splendid architectural remains, so well known as the temples of Paestum


Via Sacra


Via Sacra


Via Sacra, Temples of Neptune and Hera


Temples of Neptune and Hera


Via Sacra, Temples of Hera and Neptune


The Temple of Neptune


This is the largest temple at Paestum and is the best preserved. Built in about the mid-fifth century BC, it encapsulates the classic features of Greek temple archi-tecture . The large temple of Zeus was being built during the same period at Olympia in Greece, although it is less well preserved.   The temple is built of enormous blocks held together with simple dowels without the use of mortar: this building technique has enabled the building to withstand earth-quakes and other natural calamities.   As is the case for the other temples, the walls of the inner structure or “ cella ” are now missing due to the reuse of the blocks by the inhabitants during the medieval and modern eras.


During the eighteenth century, it was thought that the largest temple in the city must have been the temple of Poseidon-Neptune, the deity that gave the Greek city its name (Poseidonia)


However, the attribution to Neptune is still a matter of debate. The temple, which was used extensively until the imperial period, may have been dedicated to Hera, the main deity of the city. Considering that a terracotta statue of Zeus was found in the vicinity, another hypothesis is that the temple was dedicated to the most important Greek deity, the husband of Hera and the father of Athena; another hypothesis is that the temple was dedicated to Apollo


The Temple of Neptune


The Temple of Neptune


The Temple of Neptune


The Temple of Neptune


The Temple of Neptune


The temple of Hera, the so-called Basilica, is the oldest of the three large buildings. It belongs to the first generation of large stone temples and was begun in about 560 BC


The temple of Hera is the only Greek temple dating to a period of crucial importance to the formation of Greek architecture to have been preserved in such good condition


The temple of Hera (Basilica)


The temple of Hera (Basilica)


The temple of Hera (Basilica)


The temple of Hera (Basilica)


The temple of Hera (Basilica)


The temple of Hera (Basilica)


The temple of Hera (Basilica)


The temple of Hera (Basilica)


The Temple of Neptune


The Temple of Neptune The temple of Hera (Basilica)


The Temple of Neptune


The Temple of Neptune


 Italian stone pine (umbrella pine) - Pinus pinea


The Temple of Neptune


The Temple of Neptune


In Paestum even the stones are blooming


The temple of Hera (Basilica) Paestum was chiefly celebrated in ancient times for its roses, which possessed the peculiarity of flowering twice a year, and were considered as surpassing all others in fragrance. ( Verg . G. 4.118; Ovid,  Ov . Met. 15.708; Propert . 4.5. 59; Martial, 4.41. 10, 6.80. 6; Auson . Idyll. 14. 11.) The roses that still grow wild among the ruins are said to retain their ancient property, and flower regularly both in May and November


The temple of Hera (Basilica)


The temple of Athena


Ruins of the amphitheater


Ruins of the Roman Forum


Italian Wall or Ruin Lizard - Podarcis siculus


The ekklesiasterion (Bouleuterion) in the Agora of the Greek city of Paestum


The three large temples at Paestum were built according to the rules of the Doric order. The Greeks were also familiar with the Ionic order and the Corinthian order. A Doric temple can be recognised by the capitals at the top of the columns because they are shaped like large bowls: the flatter they are, the older the temple. The capitals of the “Basilica” (c. 550 BC) are the flattest, those on the temple of Athena (c. 500 BC) are less so, while those on the temple of Neptune (c. 460 BC) display the classic features of Doric architecture. A typical feature of the Doric order is the frieze, placed in the part above the columns, arranged in sculpted or painted panels (“ metopes ”) with tripartite elements that separate them (“ triglyphs ”)


Sound : Petros Tabouris Ensemble - Nomos in Dorios Harmonia (kithara) Text: Internet Pictures : Sanda Foi ş oreanu Internet (slides 2,3,24,37,64) All  copyrights  belong to their  respective owners Presentation : Sanda Foi ş oreanu 2018

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