Mexico Ciudad de Mexico9, National History Museum

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Mexico’s National History Museum is housed within the Chapultepec Castle, the construction of which began in 1785. The castle has a fascinating history in its own right, having been the palatial home of ruler Maximiliano in the 1860s, and converted to a museum by presidential decree in 1939. YOU CAN DOWNLOAD THIS PRESENTATION HERE: http://www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda/ciudad-de-mexico9-national-history-museum-15806187 Thank you!

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Enamórate de México! 9

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Mexico’s National History Museum is housed within the Chapultepec Castle , the construction of which began in 1785. The castle has a fascinating history in its own right, having been the palatial home of ruler Maximiliano in the 1860s, and converted to a museum by presidential decree in 1939. The collection of historical artifacts and ephemera housed here today is stunning in both its scope and its quality: jewelry, furniture, religious objects and fine arts are just a few of the numerous categories that comprise the permanent collection. The castle itself is a national historical treasure with its stained glass windows and murals.

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Military College of Chapultepec Hand Tinted Lithograph Meaning hill of the grasshopper in náhuatl dialect, Chapultepec is a large and beautiful park within Mexico City. On the peak of the hill, scaling at a height of  2,325 meters sits the Castle of Chapultepec, home to only the sovereigns – presidents and emperors, who have left a permanent mark on the nation. This sacred site for the Aztec serves as an eternal witness of Mexican history – starting as a Military Academy in 1780, then an Imperial residence, Presidential home, an observatory, and presently, the National History Museum.

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A statue situated at the east entrance of the park, Monumento a los Niños Héroes ("Boy Heroes"), contains six columns, each of which represents a child that died during the Battle of Chapultepec

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On September 13, 1847, los Niños Héroes ("Boy Heroes") died while defending the castle from US forces during the Battle of Chapultepec (Mexican-American War). The castle served as the national military academy at the time of the attack. Although Santa Ana allowed the boys to retreat, many stayed behind to defend their home. One boy, Juan Escutia, is said to have wrapped himself in a Mexican flag and thrown himself from the building in lieu of surrendering. A mural painted on the ceiling above a stairwell in the main entrance of the castle honors them. September 13th is a national celebration known as "Dia de Los Niños Heroes de Chapultepec."

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Gabriel Flores García (1930 –1993) was a prominent Mexican painter and muralist born in Guadalajara, Jalisco. In the 1960s, at the height of his career, he created his magnum opus Los Niños Héroes, depicting the sacrifice of six child soldiers during the Mexican-American War.

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Gabriel Flores García

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The youngest, Cadet Francisco Marquez, age 13 Gabriel Flores García

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Patio where the cadets threw themselves over the cliff to avoid capture

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Patio where the cadets threw themselves over the cliff to avoid capture

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Carl Nebel (1805–1855) was a German engineer, architect and draughtsman, best known for his detailed paintings of the Mexican landscape and people and of the battles of the Mexican-American War. Storming of Chapultepec – Quitman's attack (September 13, 1847) in the Mexican-American War. Hand-colored lithograph; original size of painted area: 42×27.5 cm.

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Mural Author-José Clemente Orozco 1948

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Stained Glass Windows by Jorge González Camarena 1963

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Stained Glass Windows by Jorge González Camarena 1963

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Contains the Aztec Pictogram for Tenochtitlan

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Painting commissioned by the Emperor Maximilian by Santiago Rebull Stained glass - Diana

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The castle became the Museo Nacional de Historia under a 1939 decree by President Lázaro Cárdenas. In its current capacity, the castle acts as a palatial museum, playing host to many stereotypical palatial museum-type things

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Miguel Cabrer a (1695-1768) Sister ( Suor ) J uana Ines de la Cruz, 1750 Don Miguel Hidalgo

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Bust of Cortés Padre Jeronimo

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This malachite door was made in Russia ca. 1850 for a world fair that took place around that time. It was commissioned by the emperor himself. Mexican president-dictator Porfirio Díaz (term: 1880s-1910) bought it and placed it in the "Malachite Room" in the Chapultepec castle in Mexico City. This is the place where Maximilian and Charlotte lived, although they never saw the door Porfirio Díaz's malachite vases

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Diaz made the castle his presidential palace and continued to adorn it in the same imperial style. He decorated its hallways with ornate malachite vases made in Italy, to a neo-classical design, from Russian material and purchased in France

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José Doroteo Arango Arámbula (5 June 1878 – 20 July 1923) – better known by his pseudonym Francisco Villa or his nickname Pancho Villa – was one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals. Pancho Villa´s Saddle

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Transport case Chapultepec Castle The Constitution

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Ceremonial carriage of Emperor Maximilian and Empress Carlota, made by Cesare Scala in Milan, Italy

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Even though Maximilian I and his wife Charlotte of Belgium were progressive in their thinking about social justice, to the Mexicans they represented the French invasion.

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Carlota of Mexico, born Charlotte of Belgium (Marie Charlotte Amélie Augustine Victoire Clémentine Léopoldine; 7 June 1840–19 Jan. 1927)

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The only daughter of Leopold I, King of the Belgians (1790–1865) by his second wife, Louise of Orléans, Princess of Orléans (1812–1850), Charlotte was born at the Royal Castle of Laeken in Laeken, Brussels, Belgium. Charlotte had three brothers: Louis-Philippe, who died in infancy, Leopold, who on the death of their father became Leopold II of Belgium and Philippe, Count of Flanders. She was also a first cousin to both Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and her husband, Prince Albert, as well as Ferdinand II of Portugal. She belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

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The rooms once used by Emperor Maximilian a nd Empress Carlotta ha ve been preserved

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Maximilian I (1832-1867) was a Habsburg Prince, younger brother of Franz Joseph who was the future emperor for Austria-Hungary. At 25 he took up the position of Governor General of the Lombardo Venetian Kingdom and married 17-year-old Charlotte of Belgium (1840-1927) the daughter of King Leopold of the Belgians who later adopted the name “Carlota” during their time in Mexico. In 1859 his brother had dismissed him due to his liberal policies.

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Robert Scott Duncanson (1821–1872) was an African-American painter SCAD Museum of Art

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Text and pictures: Internet Copyright: All the images belong to their authors Presentation: Sanda Foişoreanu www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda Sound : Lila Downs - Cielo Rojo

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