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Part V Short-Term Asset and Liability Management: 

Part V Short-Term Asset and Liability Management

Financing International Trade: 

Financing International Trade 19 Chapter South-Western/Thomson Learning © 2006 Slides by Yee-Tien (Ted) Fu

Chapter Objectives: 

Chapter Objectives To describe the methods of payment for international trade; To explain common trade finance methods; and To describe the major agencies that facilitate international trade with export insurance and/or loan programs.

Payment Methods for International Trade: 

Payment Methods for International Trade In any international trade transaction, credit is provided by either the supplier (exporter), the buyer (importer), one or more financial institutions, or any combination of the above. The form of credit whereby the supplier funds the entire trade cycle is known as supplier credit.

Payment Methods for International Trade: 

Method  : Prepayments The goods will not be shipped until the buyer has paid the seller. Time of payment : Before shipment Goods available to buyers : After payment Risk to exporter : None Risk to importer : Relies completely on exporter to ship goods as ordered Payment Methods for International Trade

Payment Methods for International Trade: 

Method  : Letters of credit (L/C) These are issued by a bank on behalf of the importer promising to pay the exporter upon presentation of the shipping documents. Time of payment : When shipment is made Goods available to buyers : After payment Risk to exporter : Very little or none Risk to importer : Relies on exporter to ship goods as described in documents Payment Methods for International Trade

Payment Methods for International Trade: 

Method  : Drafts (Bills of Exchange) These are unconditional promises drawn by the exporter instructing the buyer to pay the face amount of the drafts. Banks on both ends usually act as intermediaries in the processing of shipping documents and the collection of payment. In banking terminology, the transactions are known as documentary collections. Payment Methods for International Trade

Payment Methods for International Trade: 

Time of payment : On presentation of draft Goods available to buyers : After payment Risk to exporter : Disposal of unpaid goods Risk to importer : Relies on exporter to ship goods as described in documents Payment Methods for International Trade Method  : Drafts (Bills of Exchange) Sight drafts (documents against payment) : When the shipment has been made, the draft is presented to the buyer for payment.

Payment Methods for International Trade: 

Time of payment : On maturity of draft Goods available to buyers : Before payment Risk to exporter : Relies on buyer to pay Risk to importer : Relies on exporter to ship goods as described in documents Payment Methods for International Trade Method  : Drafts (Bills of Exchange) Time drafts (documents against acceptance) : When the shipment has been made, the buyer accepts (signs) the presented draft.

Payment Methods for International Trade: 

Method  : Consignments The exporter retains actual title to the goods that are shipped to the importer. Time of payment : At time of sale by buyer to third party Goods available to buyers : Before payment Risk to exporter : Allows importer to sell inventory before paying exporter Risk to importer : None Payment Methods for International Trade

Payment Methods for International Trade: 

Method  : Open Accounts The exporter ships the merchandise and expects the buyer to remit payment according to the agreed-upon terms. Time of payment : As agreed upon Goods available to buyers : Before payment Risk to exporter : Relies completely on buyer to pay account as agreed upon Risk to importer : None Payment Methods for International Trade

Comparison of Payment Methods: 

Comparison of Payment Methods

Trade Finance Methods: 

Trade Finance Methods Accounts Receivable Financing An exporter that needs funds immediately may obtain a bank loan that is secured by an assignment of the account receivable. Factoring (Cross-Border Factoring) The accounts receivable are sold to a third party (the factor), that then assumes all the responsibilities and exposure associated with collecting from the buyer.

Trade Finance Methods: 

Letters of Credit (L/C) These are issued by a bank on behalf of the importer promising to pay the exporter upon presentation of the shipping documents. The importer pays the issuing bank the amount of the L/C plus associated fees. Commercial or import/export L/Cs are usually irrevocable. Trade Finance Methods

Trade Finance Methods: 

Sometimes, the exporter may request that a local bank confirm (guarantee) the L/C. Trade Finance Methods Letters of Credit (L/C) The required documents typically include a draft (sight or time), a commercial invoice, and a bill of lading (receipt for shipment).

Example of an Irrevocable Letter of Credit: 

Example of an Irrevocable Letter of Credit

Documentary Credit Procedure: 

Documentary Credit Procedure

Trade Finance Methods: 

Variations include standby L/Cs : funded only if the buyer does not pay the seller as agreed upon transferable L/Cs : the first beneficiary can transfer all or part of the original L/C to a third party assignments of proceeds under an L/C : the original beneficiary assigns the proceeds to the end supplier Trade Finance Methods Letters of Credit (L/C)

Trade Finance Methods: 

Banker’s Acceptance (BA) This is a time draft that is drawn on and accepted by a bank (the importer’s bank). The accepting bank is obliged to pay the holder of the draft at maturity. If the exporter does not want to wait for payment, it can request that the BA be sold in the money market. Trade financing is provided by the holder of the BA. Trade Finance Methods

Banker’s Acceptance: 

Banker’s Acceptance

Trade Finance Methods: 

In general, all-in-rates are lower than bank loan rates. They usually fall between the rates of short-term Treasury bills and commercial papers. Trade Finance Methods Banker’s Acceptance (BA) The bank accepting the drafts charges an all-in-rate (interest rate) that consists of the discount rate plus the acceptance commission.

Life Cycle of a Typical Banker’s Acceptance: 

Life Cycle of a Typical Banker’s Acceptance 8. Pay Discounted Value of BA 1 - 7 : Prior to BA 14. Pay Face Value of BA 10. Sign Promissory Note to Pay 9. Pay Discounted Value of BA 16. Pay Face Value of BA 15. Present BA at Maturity 14 - 16 : When BA matures 8 - 13 : When BA is created

Trade Finance Methods: 

Working Capital Financing Banks may provide short-term loans that finance the working capital cycle, from the purchase of inventory until the eventual conversion to cash. Trade Finance Methods

Trade Finance Methods: 

Medium-Term Capital Goods Financing (Forfaiting) The importer issues a promissory note to the exporter to pay for its imported capital goods over a period that generally ranges from three to seven years. The exporter then sells the note, without recourse, to a bank (the forfaiting bank). Trade Finance Methods

Trade Finance Methods: 

Countertrade These are foreign trade transactions in which the sale of goods to one country is linked to the purchase or exchange of goods from that same country. Common countertrade types include barter, compensation (product buy-back), and counterpurchase. The primary participants are governments and MNCs. Trade Finance Methods

Agencies that Motivate International Trade: 

Due to the inherent risks of international trade, government institutions and the private sector offer various forms of export credit, export finance, and guarantee programs to reduce risk and stimulate foreign trade. Agencies that Motivate International Trade

Agencies that Motivate International Trade: 

Agencies that Motivate International Trade Export-Import Bank of the U.S. (Ex-Imbank) This U.S. government agency aims to create jobs by financing and facilitating the export of U.S. goods and services and maintaining the competitiveness of U.S. companies in overseas markets. It offers guarantees of commercial loans, direct loans, and export credit insurance.

Agencies that Motivate International Trade: 

Private Export Funding Corporation (PEFCO) PEFCO is a private corporation that is owned by a consortium of commercial banks and industrial companies. In cooperation with Ex-Imbank, PEFCO provides medium- and long-term fixed-rate financing for foreign buyers through the issuance of long-term bonds. Agencies that Motivate International Trade

Agencies that Motivate International Trade: 

Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) OPIC is a U.S. government agency that assists U.S. investors by insuring their overseas investments against a broad range of political risks. It also provides financing for overseas businesses through loans and loan guaranties. Agencies that Motivate International Trade