ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY: ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY SUBMITTED BY AMAAN HAIDER RIZVI 7 th -- L What is alternative energy: What is alternative energy Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel The term "alternative" presupposes a set of undesirable energy technologies against which "alternative energies" are contrasted. As such, the list of energy technologies excluded is an indicator of which problems the alternative technologies are intended to address. Controversies regarding dominant sources of energy and their alternatives have a long history. The nature of what was regarded alternative energy sources has changed considerably over time, and today, because of the variety of energy choices and differing goals of their advocates, defining some energy types as "alternative" is highly controversial. SOURCES OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY: SOURCES OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOLAR POWER NUCLEAR POWER GEO THERMAL POWER TIDAL POWER WIND POWER WAVE POWER HYDROELECTRICITY COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS RADIANT ENERGY SOLAR POWER: SOLAR POWER Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity,either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaics convert light into electric current using the photoelectric effect Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s. The 354 MW SEGS .CSP installation is the largest solar power plant in the world, located in the Mojave desert of California. Other large CSP plants include the S olnova solar power station(150 MW) and the A ndasol solar power station(150 MW), both in Spain. The over 200 MW .Aqua caliente solar project in the United States, and the 214 MW Charanka solar park in india are the world’s largest photovoltaic plants. SOLAR POWER : SOLAR POWER NUCLEAR POWER: NUCLEAR POWER Nuclear power is an alternative power source that uses the nuclear fission of uranium to create heat and, thereby, through a heat transfer mechanism and turbines, create electricity. For a nuclear reactor to create energy it is necessary for nuclear fission to take place. This occurs when an atom is split into smaller particles and an enormous amount of energy is released in the process. Uranium is used as the fuel for the reaction as it is radioactive, and is therefore unstable enough to be broken down into smaller parts. The uranium atom absorbs a neutron and splits into two equal parts and energy is created. This kinetic energy becomes heat energy as the particles slow down, and it is this heat energy, which is used to produce electricity (see Extras / Links for more information on the science involved). The heat is moved through a transfer medium, such as water, and is used to turn water into steam. This steam turns a turbine, which is connected to a generator. As the turbine turns the generator it creates electricity, which is then transferred to the consumers. NUCLEAR POWER: NUCLEAR POWER GEO THERMAL POWER: GEO THERMAL POWER The earth beneath our feet contains a significant amount of energy in the form of heat. This is referred to as geothermal energy and has the potential to generate geothermal power to provide large communities with a renewable electricity supply. People have made use of geothermal energy in the form of hot springs for centuries however the first attempt to generate electricity from this energy source did not occur until the 20th century. The production of electricity from geothermal energy sources can be a highly efficient means of delivering clean and renewable electricity to many people. Location is of key importance for the development of an efficient geothermal power station and therefore, economically viable levels of electricity can only be generated in certain areas of the world. There are only a handful of locations across the world that are capable of producing viable and efficient levels of electricity from geothermal energy sources and as a result of this, in 2007, less than 1% of the world's electricity supply was produced from geothermal sources. GEOTHERMAL POWER: GEOTHERMAL POWER TIDAL POWER: TIDAL POWER Tidal power captures the energy of moving water masses due to tides and uses it to generate renewable electricity. A dam or barrage or underwater turbines are built across the estuary of a river. The river funnels the tides into narrow channels where the speeding water turns the turbines. Tidal energy is the energy obtained from the movement of tides. If harnessed properly it can produce up to 80% of the world's electricity needs. One type of tidal power station has gates built over estuaries, and the water enters from one side of the gate and while exiting the other gate it passes over a turbine. The potential energy of the water turns the turbines as it flows out and this is used to make electricity. Because it relies on tidal differences and certain geographical requirements, only some places are suitable. This design can cause environmental concern as the aquatic life of the estuary can be harmed by the unnatural rush of tidal waves. Wave energy: Another design overcomes these problems by using the motion of the waves, not tidal differences. It resembles a very-large-diameter pipe in short segments, but only able to move vertically, similar to a bicycle chain. The power is generated in the junction of the "links" by the vertical movement of these adjoining "links" caused by the oscillation of the waves. It generates power 24 hours/day, is not affected by tides, and does not have to be built in the actual estuaries. However, it is subject to storm and cyclone damage, and as they are semi-submerged often ships can't see them until it is too late to avoid. Most projects that I have seen use something similar to a hydro electric dam. The water is channeled as the tide goes out and later as it returns so that it spins turbines to produce electricity. Another method uses an upright chute anchored on the bottom. As the tide comes in it fills in around the chute finally spilling over its top edge and spinning a turbine inside (near the top). Later, when the tide has gone out valves open in the bottom allowing the contained water to spew out spinning a turbine near the bottom. TIDAL POWER: TIDAL POWER WIND POWER: WIND POWER Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using: wind turbines to make electrical power, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines which are connected to the electric power transmission network. Offshore wind farms can harness more frequent and powerful winds than are available to land-based installations and have less visual impact on the landscape but construction costs are considerably higher. Small onshore wind facilities are used to provide electricity to isolated locations and utility companies increasingly buy surplus electricity produced by small domestic wind turbines. Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation and uses little land. Any effects on the environment are generally less problematic than those from other power sources. As of 2011, Denmark is generating more than a quarter of its electricity, and 83 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis.In 2010 wind energy production was over 2.5% of total worldwide electricity usage, and growing rapidly at more than 25% per annum. The monetary cost per unit of energy produced is similar to the cost for new coal and natural gas installations.Although wind power is a popular form of energy generation, the construction of wind farms is not universally welcomed due to aesthetics WIND POWER: WIND POWER WAVE POWER: WAVE POWER Waves are a result of the effects of wind on the oceans and seas. This wind originates from the major influx of energy to this planet: solar energy from the sun. The energy contained within waves is around the world is huge; in some places values of 70MW/km of wave front are experienced. In theory it could then be said that huge generating stations could be built which would capture all this energy and supply all or most of our needs. But there are many factors affecting this kind of deployment becoming a reality. Waves are not as consistent as the tide and therefore there is a definite problem with matching supply and demand. This is one of the main reasons that Wave power has so far been restricted to small scale schemes, no large scale commercial plant is in action. Identifying areas of suitable wave height is something that has to be done before deployment can start. The highest concentration of wind power is found in the windiest areas, which are mainly between latitudes 40 and 60 in both northern and southern hemispheres. We are lucky in the Scotland to have an abundance of Wave Energy available, mainly on the west coast. The following diagram shows the variation in wave height around Britain during the Christmas Eve, 50 year storm of 1999. The technology must be able to withstand the freak wave heights that can be experienced, in rough and remote locations where access can be difficult. WAVE POWER: WAVE POWER HYDROELECTRICITY: HYDROELECTRICITY Hydroelectricity is a renewable energy source that uses the power of flowing water to spin water turbines which then generates electricity. Hydro electricity is the result of using water power to turn the generators to produce electricity. It is the most green method after the set up costs. Electricity run by water power. (A waterfall turns a turbine, and the turbine turns a coil in a generator, creating electricity. Hydro electricity is water made into power Hydroelectricity or hydroelectric power is the electricity obtained by harnessing the power of water flowing down from a high level. It is a timeless and renewable resource. Huge generators convert the potential energy of falling or fast moving water into electrical energy. The potential energy of the water is first converted into mechanical energy and then into electrical energy. Water, usually stored in dams, is led down through large pipes or tunnels to lower levels, and in the course of the fall, the water rotates turbines. The mechanical energy produced is converted to electricity by the generators connected to it. The structure that houses the turbines and generators is called the powerhouse. Transformers change the alternating current produced by the generators into current of very high voltage for easy transmission through long distances. HYDROELECTRICITY: HYDROELECTRICITY COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS: COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS CNG is a readily available alternative to gasoline that’s made by compressing natural gas to less than 1% of its volume at standard atmospheric pressure. Consisting mostly of methane, CNG is odorless, colorless and tasteless. It's drawn from domestically drilled natural gas wells or in conjunction with crude oil production. Natural gas powers more than 12 million vehicles on the road today. Unfortunately, 250,000 of these are being used in the U.S., according to GE. The average growth rate in the U.S. shows a 3.7% increase per year since 2000, as contrasted with a booming global growth rate of 30.6% per year. Expanding the numbers of CNG fueling stations would allow for the increase of CNG vehicles on U.S. roads. There are 12,000 around the world, yet the U.S. claims about 500 public stations. New technologies and greater demand mean that the number of new stations is climbing rapidly. However, as gasoline prices continue to rise, American interest in CNG is rising, and with good reason – CNG costs about 50% less than gasoline or diesel, emits up to 90% fewer emissions than gasoline and* there’s an abundant supply right here in America. So it’s clean, affordable abundant and American. COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS: COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS RADIANT ENERGY: RADIANT ENERGY The term is most commonly used in the fields of radiometry, solar energy, heating and lighting, but is also used less frequently in other fields (such as telecommunications). The quantity of radiant energy may be calculated by integrating radiant flux (or power) with respect to time and, like all forms of energy, its SI unit is the joule. In applications involving transmission of power from one location to another, "radiant energy" is sometimes used to refer to the electromagnetic waves themselves, rather than their energy (a property of the waves). Because electromagnetic (EM) radiation can be considered to be a stream of photons, radiant energy can be viewed as the energy carried by these photons. Alternatively, EM radiation can be viewed as an electromagnetic wave, which carries energy in its oscillating electric and magnetic fields. These two views are completely equivalent, and are reconciled to one another in quantum field theory. RADIANT ENERGY: RADIANT ENERGY THE ABOVE ALTENATIVE ENERGY SOURCES POWER ARE COMPOSED BY:: THE ABOVE ALTENATIVE ENERGY SOURCES POWER ARE COMPOSED BY: AMAAN HAIDER RIZVI THANKING YOU.