Category: Education

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LEADERSHIP Leadership is the ability to influence and directing people towards the accomplishment of a goal or objective Types of Leadership: 1.Formal Leadership 2. Informal Leadership

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IMPORTANCE OR NEED TO LEADERSHIP Leadership is necessary for accomplishment of group objectives. It helps in goal-setting of a group. It motivates employees to work enthusiastically towards attainment of organizational objectives. A motivated employee has high morale. It builds good employee relations resulting higher performance. It facilitates the spirit of cooperation and coordination by encouraging mutual understanding, team spirit. A leader takes the responsibility of representing the group and thereby protects its interest and defends its integrity. Leadership instills the spirit of confidence in the followers by making them aware about their qualities and capacities and strengthening their emotions. Leadership facilitates change by easing the employee resistance and thus enables the enterprises to cope with fast changing and complex environment.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIPS: Leadership is a process of stimulating the group members. Leadership is a complex relationship which exists between the leader, the followers, the organization , the social values and the economic and political condition. Each of these factors has its own peculiarities which are the cause of the complexity of this relationship. The leader’s role and the degree of its acceptance by the group members condition the leadership The core of leadership is to motivate the employees by integrating their individual goals with those of the organization. When a leader leads, he/she serve also. He is concerned about the goals of the followers and guides them to achieve their goals without any deviation. A leader has commitment, good judgement and confidence in making timely decisions and willingness to act.

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LEADERSHIP STYLES Autocratic or Authoritarian Style Democratic or participative style Free rein or laissez faire or permissive style.

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Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else High degree of dependency on the leader Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively AUTOCRATIC: It leads to low morale and conflict among the subordinates. Subordinates are induced to avoid responsibility, initiative and innovative behavior. Full potential and creativeness of subordinates are not utilized. DISADVANTAGES: ADVANTAGES: Quick Decision making Provides strong motivation and satisfaction to the leader Yield positive results Need less competent subordinates at lower level

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May help motivation and involvement Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business Can delay decision making DEMOCRATIC: DISADVANTAGES: It is time consuming and causes delay in decision making. It is not workable where subordinates do not take extra responsibility of sharing n decision making . ADVANTAGES: It improves job satisfaction and morale, develops positive attitudes, Reduces resistance to change, increase productivity and generate self motivation.

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‘Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction Relies on good team work Relies on good interpersonal relations LAISSEZ-FAIRE: DISADVANTAGES: Without a strong leader the group will be left directionless and uncontrolled It ignores the role of the leader and contribution ADVANTAGES: It increase freedom of the subordinates. Develop their expression Encourages them to work as group members Increase job satisfaction and morale.

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RECENT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIPS Charismatic Leadership Transactional Vs Transformational Leadership Visionary Leadership

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1.CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP: Self confidence A Vision Ability to articulate the vision Strong convictions about the vision Behavior that is out of the ordinary Perceive as being a change agent Environmental sensitivity.

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2. TRANSACTIONAL VS TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSACTIONAL LEADERS: Contingent reward Management by exception Laissez-faire CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS Charisma Inspiration Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Transactional leaders are those leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established Goals by clarifying role and task requirement. Transformational leaders are leaders who provide individualized consideration And intellectual stimulation and who possess charisma.

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3. VISIONARY LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS OF A VISIONARY LEADER: The ability to explain the vision Skill to express the vision through leader’s behavior Able to extend vision to different leadership contexts Visionary leadership is the ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future for an Organization that grows out of and improves upon the present.

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SUGGESTED QUALITIES OF LEADERSHIP: Technical/specific skill Charismatic inspiration Preoccupation with a role A clear sense of purpose Results- orientation Cooperation Optimism Rejection of determinism Ability to encourage and nurture those that report to them Role models Self-knowledge Self- awareness Awareness of environment The ability to choose winners Empathy Integrity Sense of humor

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Four Leadership Strategies Attention through Vision Meaning through Communication Trust through Positioning Deployment of self LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES

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THE ESSENCE OF LEADERSHIP Adversity Values Enhancing trust Governance Fearless environment Managerial remuneration Integrity Two mottos

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