Slide 1: REPORT WRITING WHAT IS A REPORT? : WHAT IS A REPORT? “A report is a statement of the results of an investigation or of any matter on which definite information is required”.
(Oxford English Dictionary)
Reports are a highly structured form of writing. Slide 3: REPORT WRITING Report writing is an essential skill for
Professionals in almost every field; accountants teachers, graphic designers, information
scientists A report aims to inform, as clearly and succinctly as possible. It should be easy to
read and professional in its presentation. Slide 4: To present the findings and results.
To keep records.
To tell about failures and successes.
To tell the progress of the project/research. WHY DO WE WRITE REPORTS? Slide 5: TYPES OF REPORTS According to use:
According to period:
special According to levels of management:
Reports to Top Management
Reports to Functional Management
Reports to Junior Level Management
Functional Reports Slide 6: Corporate Reports:
Oral Slide 7: A Report differs from an Essay in that A report:
Present information, not an argument.
Is meant to be scanned quickly by the reader.
Uses numbered headings and sub- headings
Uses graphics where possible (tables, graphs, illustrations)
May nee and abstract (some times called an executive summary).
Does not always need references and bibliography.
Is often followed by recommendations and/ or appendices. A report is similar to An Essay in that both need:
Formal style, introduction, body and conclusion
Analytical thinking, careful proof-reading and neat presentation. Slide 8: Meet the needs of the readers.
Answers the questions.
Is it at the right level for readers?.
Clear logical structure. GOOD REPORT… Slide 9: REPORT STRUCTURE: Letter of transmittal
The purpose of the letter
The main finding of the report
Any Important Considerations
An Acknowledgement of any Significant help
An Expression of pleasure or gratitude
person/group who commissioned the report Slide 10: Table of content
accurate, clear layout
section numbering system and indentation
list of illustrations if applicable
List of abbreviations and/or glossary
arranged alphabetically Slide 11: Executive summary/abstract
complete summary of key information
informative, not descriptive, in form
relating topic to wider field
necessary background information
purpose of report
scope of report
explanation of arrangement of report
sections Slide 12: Body
A Report of Primary Research would include
Findings of results
A report of secondary research
Information organized under appropriate
topics with sub heading
Analysis / Discussion of the source of reporting. Conclusions/summary : Conclusions/summary Summarize what has been discovered
Repeat the question
Give the answer
Outlines the findings of the research
Do not introduce new information in the conclusion.
Analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of
various courses of action.. Slide 14: Recommendations
based on the conclusions
well organized, with the most
texts consulted but not referred to
directly in the report
placed at end of a report if included
arranged in the order referred to in
the report REPORT WRITING PROCESS : REPORT WRITING PROCESS THE OBJECTIVE.. : THE OBJECTIVE.. It defines the scope of your investigation.
Identify the purpose…
To convince? PLANNING YOUR REPORT : PLANNING YOUR REPORT How much time do you have to write the report?.
How can your work be divided up into the various stages?
Set yourself deadlines for the various stages. COLLECTING INFORMATION : COLLECTING INFORMATION What is the information you need ?
Where do you find it ?
How much do you need ? ORGANIZING INFORMATION : ORGANIZING INFORMATION Discriminate between relevant and irrelevant information.
Sort/organize information under main ideas/details.
The computer program, Inspiration, can help in organizing . THE AUDIENCE : THE AUDIENCE Often 3 different audiences
The casual reader/big boss who wants the main message as painlessly as possible.
The interested reader who wants more detail but doesn’t want to grapple with all the gory technical details.
The guru who wants the whole story. WHAT TO DO? : WHAT TO DO? To address all 3 audiences effectively,
Include an abstract for the big boss
A main body for the interested non-specialist
A technical appendix for the guru
Thus, a structure emerges! FINISHING THE REPORT : FINISHING THE REPORT Writing style
Structure alone is not enough for clarity – you must also write clear sentences.
Write complete short sentences
Avoid jargon and cliché, strive for simplicity
One theme per paragraph Slide 23: All reports should be written in the third person i.e., as an objective observer!.
Avoid using terms such as ``I did this experiment and ..".
Instead substitute terms, such as ``The experiment was performed ...''.
Some friendly help…
The view of an objective and completely fresh reader can be of great benefit.
This person may also be able to pick up spelling or grammatical errors which you yourself are unaware of. WHO IS THE REPORTER? FINISHING TOUCHES : FINISHING TOUCHES Type
Don’t use too many styles
Avoid All Caps
Difficult to Read
Bottom Center Slide 25: Paper
8 ½ x 11
Top & Sides - 1”
Bottom - 1 ½”
Left & Right 1.25” Slide 26: THANK YOU
D. SAMUEL MANIRAJ, MBA.,M.Com.,M.Phil.,MA.,PGDCA.,ADCHN.,
CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU,