student fracture ortho

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PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT OF FRACTURES:

PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT OF FRACTURES

GOALS OF FRACTURE TREATMENT:

GOALS OF FRACTURE TREATMENT Restore the patient to optimal functional state Prevent fracture and soft-tissue complications Get the fracture to heal, and in a position which will produce optimal functional recovery Rehabilitate the patient as early as possible

HOW FRACTURES HEAL:

HOW FRACTURES HEAL In nature Regeneration vs repair Three phases of healing by callus Rapid process, rehabilitation slow, low risk With operative intervention (reduction + compression) Primary bone healing Slow process, rehabilitation rapid, high risk With operative intervention (nailing or external fixation) Healing by callus Rapid process, rehabilitation rapid, lesser risk

FACTORS AFFECTING FRACTURE HEALING:

FACTORS AFFECTING FRACTURE HEALING The energy transfer of the injury The tissue response Two bone ends in opposition or compressed Micro-movement or no movement BS (scaphoid, talus, femoral and humeral head) NS No infection The patient The method of treatment

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HIGH-ENERGY INJURY

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LOW ENERGY INJURY

DESCRIBING THE FRACTURE:

DESCRIBING THE FRACTURE Mechanism of injury (traumatic, pathological, stress) Anatomical site (bone and location in bone) Configuration Displacement three planes of angulation translation shortening Articular involvement/epiphyseal injuries fracture involving joint dislocation ligamentous avulsion Soft tissue injury

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MINIMALLY DISPLACED DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURE

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COMMINUTED PROXIMAL- THIRD FEMORAL FRACTURE WITH SIGNIFICANT DISPLACEMENT

MANAGEMENT OF THE INJURED PATIENT:

MANAGEMENT OF THE INJURED PATIENT Life saving measures Diagnose and treat life threatening injuries Emergency orthopaedic involvement Life saving Complication saving Emergency orthopaedic management (Day 1) Monitoring of fracture (Days to weeks) Rehabilitation + treatment of complications (weeks to months)

LIFE SAVING MEASURES:

LIFE SAVING MEASURES A Airway and cervical spine immobilisation B Breathing C Circulation (treatment and diagnosis of cause) D Disability (head injury) E Exposure (musculo-skeletal injury)

EMERGENCY ORTHOPAEDIC MANAGEMENT:

EMERGENCY ORTHOPAEDIC MANAGEMENT Life saving measures Reducing a pelvic fracture in haemodynamically unstable patient Applying pressure to reduce haemorrhage from open fracture Complication saving Early and complete diagnosis of the extent of injuries Diagnosing and treating soft-tissue injuries

DIAGNOSING THE SOFT TISSUE INJURY:

DIAGNOSING THE SOFT TISSUE INJURY Skin Open fractures, degloving injuries and ischaemic necrosis Muscles Crush and compartment syndromes Blood vessels Vasospasm and arterial laceration Nerves Neurapraxias, axonotmesis, neurotmesis Ligaments Joint instability and dislocation

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SEVERE SOFT-TISSUE INJURY

TREATING THE SOFT TISSUE INJURY:

TREATING THE SOFT TISSUE INJURY All severe soft tissue injuries………equire urgent treatment Open fractures , Vascular injuries, Nerve injuries, Compartment syndromes, Fracture/dislocations After the treatment of the soft tissue injury the fracture requires rigid fixation A severe soft-tissue injury will delay fracture healing

DIAGNOSING THE BONE INJURY:

DIAGNOSING THE BONE INJURY Clinical assessment History Co-morbidities Exposure/systematic examination “First-aid” reduction Splintage and analgesia Radiographs Two planes including joints above and below area of injury

TREATING THE FRACTURE I:

TREATING THE FRACTURE I Does the fracture require reduction? Is it displaced? Does it need to be reduced? (e.g. clavicle, ribs, MT’s) How accurate a reduction do we need? alignment without angulation (closed reduction - e.g. wrist) anatomic (open reduction - e.g. adult forearm )

TREATING THE FRACTURE II:

TREATING THE FRACTURE II How are we going to hold the reduction? Semi-rigid (Plaster) Rigid (Internal fixation) What treatment plan will we follow? When can the patient load the injured limb? When can the patient be allowed to move the joints? How long will we have to immobilise the fracture for?

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DIFFERENT TYPES OF RIGID FRACTURE FIXATION

TREATING THE FRACTURE III:

TREATING THE FRACTURE III Operative Non-optve Rehabilitation Rapid Slow Risk of joint stiffness Low Present Risk of malunion Low Present Risk of non-union Present Present Speed of healing Slow Rapid Risk of infection Present Low Cost ? ?

INDICATIONS FOR OPERATIVE TREATMENT:

INDICATIONS FOR OPERATIVE TREATMENT General trend toward operative treatment last 30 yrs Improved implants and antibiotic prophylaxis, Use of closed and minimally invasive methods Current absolute indications:- Polytrauma Displaced intra-articular fractures Open #’s #’s with vascular inj or compartment syn, Pathological #’s Non-unions Current relative indications:- Loss of position with closed method, Poor functional result with non-anatomical reduction, Displaced fractures with poor blood supply, Economic and medical indications

WHEN IS THE FRACTURE HEALED?:

WHEN IS THE FRACTURE HEALED? Clinically Upper limb Lower limb Adult 6-8 weeks 12-16 weeks Child 3-4 weeks 6-8 weeks Radiologically Bridging callus formation Remodelling Biomechanically

REHABILITATION:

REHABILITATION Restoring the patient as close to pre-injury functional level as possible May not be possible with:- Severe fractures or other injuries Frail, elderly patients Approach needs to be:- Pragmatic with realistic targets Multidisciplinary Physiotherapist, Occupational therapist, District nurse, GP, Social worker

COMPLICATIONS OF FRACTURES:

COMPLICATIONS OF FRACTURES Early Late General Other injuries Chest infection PE UTI FES/ARDS Bed sores Bone Infection Non-union Malunion AVN Soft-tissues Plaster sores/WI Tendon rupture N/V injury Nerve compression Compartment syn. Volkmann contracture

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