BIOREACTOR

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Submitted by- S amreen Invertis university Department of Biotechnology bareilly

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A bioreactor refers to any reactor which provides a controlled environment for the growth of microorganisms or animal cells to obtain a desired product.

CSTR::

CSTR: Reactants are continuously introduced in the reactor while products are continuously removed . Mixing and bubble dispersion are achieved by mechanical agitation ; this requires a relatively high input of energy per unit volume . The impeller stirs the reagents to ensure proper mixing , oxygen transfer and uniform environment throughout the vessel.

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The stirrer shaft is driven rapidly by the stirrer motor. Liquid is forced away from the impeller, circulates through the vessel, and periodically returns to the impeller region . A wide variety of impeller sizes and shapes is available to produce different flow patterns inside the vessel; in tall fermenters, installation of multiple impellers improves mixing.

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Baffles , which are vertical strips of metal mounted against the wall of the tank, are installed to reduce vortexing and aid mixing. 4 equally-spaced baffles are usually sufficient to prevent vortex formation . Mechanical seal is provided to maintain aseptic conditions . The effectiveness of agitation depends upon the design of the impeller blades, speed of agitation and the depth of liquid.

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Most STRs have height:diameter aspect ratios of 3:1 or 4:1 . Typically , only 70-80% of the volume of stirred reactors is filled With liquid. This allows adequate headspace for disengagement of droplets from the exhaust gas and to accommodate any foam which may develop .

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If foaming is a problem, a supplementary impeller called a foam breaker may be installed. Alternatively, chemical antifoam agents are added to the broth; because antifoams reduce the rate of oxygen transfer . Temperature control and heat transfer in stirred vessels can be accomplished using internal cooling coils.

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ADVANTAGE: The CSTR is an easily constructed, versatile and cheap reactor. DISADVANTAGE : High levels of shear can damage sensitive cells, particularly in plant and animal cell culture.

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