logging in or signing up CSD_2_Wheel_Tire_Basics samletisushant87 Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 9 Category: Entertainment License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: July 17, 2012 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 0 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript Tire Tech 101 : Tire Tech 101 What is a tire made of. What percent of a tire is rubber? What is a pneumatic tire? What is the difference between radial & bias ply tires ? Why are tires black? Actual components that go into a tire. : Actual components that go into a tire. Raw Rubber Steel Nylon Polyester Rayon Carbon Black Synthetic Rubber Fiberglass Aramid Brass Aramid: A synthetic fabric used in some tires that is (pound-for-pound) stronger than steel. What percent of a tire is rubber? : What percent of a tire is rubber? By weight, give or take 30% By volume, quite a bite more. What Is Pneumatic Tire? : What Is Pneumatic Tire? Filled by air, especially compressed air: a pneumatic tire (dictionary definition). All tires manufactured today are considered Pneumatic tires. Who Invented The First Tire? : Who Invented The First Tire? It was invented in 1888, by John Dunlop. This would be the end of the solid tire. Why are Tires Black? : Why are Tires Black? To protect the rubber from the harmful UV rays. A common type of UV stabilizer called a competitive absorber is added to capture and absorb these harmful UV light wave energy. Bias Ply Tire : Bias Ply Tire A bias ply tire has plies running at an angle from bead to bead. The cord angle is also reversed from ply to ply. Tread is bonded directly to the top ply. Belted Bias Tire : Belted Bias Tire Is a bias tire with belts added to increase tread stiffness. These belts are also ran at a different angle. These belts only lie on the tread area and not on the side walls, like cords. Radial Ply Tire : Radial Ply Tire Has plies running straight across from bead to bead with stabilizer belts lying directly beneath the tread. This results in the radial having flexible side wall, but a stiff tread. Michelin developed it in 1955! 50 years ago! Sears imported them in the 1970s Tire Cutaway : Tire Cutaway Tire Cutaway : Tire Cutaway Cooper Tire Cutaway : Cooper Tire Cutaway Tire Cutaway : Tire Cutaway Tire Sidewall : Tire Sidewall Tire Sidewall : Tire Sidewall Tire Sidewall : Tire Sidewall Tire Size : Tire Size LT = Light Truck Tire Size : Tire Size If you switch tire size on a car you can mess up the speedometer to figure out how close you are do the math to figure out the diameter. For a 205/75R15 tire it would look like this 205 X .75 x 2 ÷ 25.4 + 15= 27.106 Tire size X Aspect ratio X 2 ÷ 25.4 + Rim size 100 Aspect Ratio : Aspect Ratio Percentage of tires height in relation to it’s width A 60 series tire height will be 60% of the width. The aspect ratio can be a 40,50, 60,65,70,75,78 These are some of the most common ones. Aspect Ratio : Aspect Ratio So if we have a P205/60R15 tire. The width is 205 millimeters and the height is 60% of the width. That means 205 x .6 = 123 millimeters. That tire should be 123 millimeters tall. You can raise or lower your car by changing the height of the side wall. SERVICE DESCRIPTION : SERVICE DESCRIPTION On most tires, you will notice some additional numbers and letters located at the end of the tire size. For Example:P185/70R14 92S In this example the 92S is called the SERVICE DESCRIPTION. The Service Description consists of two parts, LOAD INDEX (the numbers) and SPEED RATING(the letter). The SPEED RATING is a letter which designates the rating achieved on indoor wheel testing. Load Index : Load Index The LOAD INDEX is a number ranging from 0 to 279 and covers load capacities from the smallest motorcycle tires to those for the largest earth mover tires. In passenger car tires, the load index typically ranges from 75 to 100. As in aspect ratio where the operative word was ratio, in load index the operative word here is index. An index is a point of reference or a chart to refer to find information. All tire guides used by retail tire stores have them and they have load index charts in them. By referring to the load index chart in the Tire Guide you can determine the maximum load carrying capacity of a tire size from using the load index number at the end of the P-Metric size. For Example: Load Index Max Load (lbs.) 91 1356 92 1389 93 1433 Load Index : Load Index For a complete listing of load index ratings go to this web site Load Index : Load Index Speed Rating : Speed Rating from Michelin Tyres 2003 Speed Rating : Speed Rating Thanks To Tire Guides. Com Effects of speed on a tire : Effects of speed on a tire Tires are tested under Laboratory conditions they are not worn out, are properly inflated, not over loaded, damaged or altered. Just because the tire is rated at these speeds does not mean the car is safe or legal to drive at those speeds. TIRE GRADING : TIRE GRADING Uniform Tire Quality Grading System Code UTQGS TREAD WEAR: Tire life expectations 100 is base line, 150 will give you 50% more wear then one ranked 100 (100 = 30,000 miles TRACTION:Braking capabilities – AA, A, B, C (AA Highest rating) Traction Grades Asphalt g Force Concrete g Force AA Above .54 .41 A Above .47 .35 B Above .38 .26 C Less than .38 .26 TIRE GRADING : TIRE GRADING TEMPERATURE: Ability to withstand extreme heat - A, B, C Tire pressure : Tire pressure Tire pressure should be check monthly Tire pressure should be checked cold For every 10° Fahrenheit change in air temperature, your tire's inflation pressure will change by about 1 psi The air pressure in the tire supports the car, make sure that it is the right amount. If you check the air pressure inside the shop at a temperature of 70° will the tires be the right pressure when it goes outside at 0°? Tire Pressure : Tire Pressure The EPA says your mileage drops 1% for every 2 pounds under the recommended tire pressure. Tire pressure : Tire pressure Use the tire pressure recommended in your vehicle's owner's manual or tire information placard Tire Placard : Tire Placard Driver’s door pillar Glove box door or Center Consol lid Trunk lid or Gas door Tire pressure : Tire pressure This is the Maximum pressure for the tire not the normal pressure, use only if car is fully loaded. Thanks to Michelin for the picture Tread Patterns : Tread Patterns Passenger Touring Performance Snow Rain All Season Grand Touring Performance Passenger Competition High Performance Slide 36: Net to Gross Ratio – The amount of rubber hitting the road. Slide 37: 35 psi sitting still in water 35 psi at 60 mph 30 psi at 60 mph 25 psi at 60 mph Effects of Tire pressure and Speed on wet traction Nitrogen in tires : Nitrogen in tires Nitrogen is a dry inert gas. That means moisture free. Nitrogen leaks out of the sidewall three times slower then oxygen. Oxygen oxidizes the rubber in the sidewall. Plus the moisture in the air will rust the steel rims. Effects of tire pressure Over inflation : Effects of tire pressure Over inflation Wide tires that are under inflated can also wear in the center Effects of tire pressure Under inflation : Effects of tire pressure Under inflation Tire Defects : Tire Defects Separations Bulges sidewall separations tread tearing, chunking shoulder cracking Sidewall cracking Weather cracking Breaks in sidewall/tread Excessive radial runout diameter Excessive lateral runout width Conicity not level across tread cone shaped Tire Wear : Tire Wear Cupping : Cupping Tire Defects : Tire Defects Bulge : Bulge Tire Defects : Tire Defects Chunk Outs : Chunk Outs Tire Defects : Tire Defects Cracks : Cracks Tire Defects, Foreign Objects : Tire Defects, Foreign Objects Tire Wear Side Wear & Feathering : Tire Wear Side Wear & Feathering Tire Pull : Tire Pull Defective/damaged tires Bent wheel (rim) Excessive shoulder wear Excessive feathering Tire Defects : Tire Defects Tire Wear : Tire Wear Tire Wear : Tire Wear Tire Wear : Tire Wear Tire Rotation : Tire Rotation Tires should be rotated between 5,000 and 7,500 miles see charts on how to rotate Thanks to Michelin for the picture Tire Rotation : Tire Rotation Effects of Mismatched Tires : Effects of Mismatched Tires Different Manufactures Different sizes New and/or used tires Effects on speedometer Effects on ABS/Traction Control Systems Effects on vehicle handling Tire Replacement : Tire Replacement One problem with replacing just one tire on FWD, AWD or 4X4’s is that you have a different size tire when you measure the circumference this creates a problems with the transaxles and drive trains. It also cause’s problems with traction control and ABS stopping. Tires need to be rotated at least every 7500 miles and if one tire is damaged on one of these cars all 4, count them FOUR tires need to be changed. Tread depth should be maintained within 4/32 of each tire. For more info go to Wheels : Wheels steel \ cast Off set Bump steer Scrub Radius note pages C 311- 313 How to measure a rim : How to measure a rim You need to measure from bead seat to bead seat. But you cannot measure from the inside with a tape measure take a good guess where it is on the outside. This one is 14 inch’s. How to measure a rim : How to measure a rim To find the diameter you measure the circumference (C) and divide it by Pi (3.14) ( C ÷ Pi = Diameter ) 44 ÷ 3.14 = 14.0127 So it is really a 14 inch rim That math class is important. Wheel Balance : Wheel Balance Improper balance causes the tire to vibrate several types of balancers, Bubble balancers, on car balancers and off car balancers shown. Some are hand spun and some are powered Static balance : Static balance C 77 Equals wheel tramp or hop weight not even around the tire must add weight to other side to equal it out. Dynamic balance : Dynamic balance C- 78 equals wobble side to side weights not equal Wheel Balance : Wheel Balance Make sure when you balance a tire to use the right adapter some wheels are Hub centric or lug centric that means does it center on the Hub or the lugs most cars from the factory are Hub centric but some after marker wheels are lug centric If you think that your balancer is not working right or the wheel is off check the balance rotate it 180 degrees and rebalance it. It should have the same readings. Wheel Balance : Wheel Balance Hub centric or cone adapter lug centric Air Pressure Monitors : Air Pressure Monitors May have a sensor inside tire May have a sensor in the tire valve stem! Sensors may have to be recalibrated after a tire rotation! Tire Pressure Quiz : Tire Pressure Quiz (Roll your mouse across the pictures to confirm you were right) 20 psi cold 29 psi cold Tire Pressure Monitoring : Tire Pressure Monitoring Warns of significant lose of tire pressure First used on 1994 Corvette All cars & LD Trucks must have TP system by 2008 Two types: Direct and Indirect Direct TP Warning System : Direct TP Warning System Computer controlled (BCM) w/ radio transmitters in wheels (pressure sensors) Transmits actual TP of each tire Displays on IPC Diagnostic capabilities Indirect TP Warning System : Indirect TP Warning System ABS based system, using existing ABS hardware, w/ software modifications Changes in TP affect tire circumference, affecting tire speed Sensors monitor each wheels speed, compares to one another Approx. 7 psi difference to trigger warning Tire Pressure Monitoring : Tire Pressure Monitoring Before you do any work on these cars, make sure that the warning lights are off before you work on the car. If you mount or dismount the tire and it was not working right before, you could be blamed for causing a problem. You need to do this with all cars and with all warning lights such as, check engine & ABS etc. Run Flat Tires : Run Flat Tires Run Flat Tires : Run Flat Tires Temp. supports weight of vehicle with no air pressure Internal support, thicker side walls, stronger beads. Can maintain Mobility for 50 miles up to 55 mph Run Flat Tires : Run Flat Tires Michelin unveiled the “Tweel” at the 2005 North American International Auto Show Increased mobility, lateral stability, and gas mileage For more information go to : For more information go to A big thanks goes to these companies for use of pictures and information Good heart - Wilcox http://tireguides.com/default.asp Tire Guides Inc The End ?????? : The End ?????? You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.