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The new world of Photonics


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Photonic Crystals: A New Frontier in Modern Optics : 

Photonic Crystals: A New Frontier in Modern Optics MARIAN FLORESCU NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology

Slide 2: 

“ If only were possible to make materials in which electromagnetically waves cannot propagate at certain frequencies, all kinds of almost-magical things would happen” Sir John Maddox, Nature (1990)

Photonic Crystals : 

Two Fundamental Optical Principles Localization of Light S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58,2486 (1987) Inhibition of Spontaneous Emission E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 2059 (1987) Photonic crystals: periodic dielectric structures. interact resonantly with radiation with wavelengths comparable to the periodicity length of the dielectric lattice. dispersion relation strongly depends on frequency and propagation direction may present complete band gaps  Photonic Band Gap (PBG) materials. Photonic Crystals Guide and confine light without losses Novel environment for quantum mechanical light-matter interaction A rich variety of micro- and nano-photonics devices

Photonic Crystals History : 

Photonic Crystals History 1987: Prediction of photonic crystals S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58,2486 (1987), “Strong localization of photons in certain dielectric superlattices” E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 2059 (1987), “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid state physics and electronics” 1990: Computational demonstration of photonic crystal K. M. Ho, C. T Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990) 1991: Experimental demonstration of microwave photonic crystals E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Mitter, K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991) 1995: ”Large” scale 2D photonic crystals in Visible U. Gruning, V. Lehman, C.M. Englehardt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66 (1995) 1998: ”Small” scale photonic crystals in near Visible; “Large” scale inverted opals 1999: First photonic crystal based optical devices (lasers, waveguides)

Photonic Crystals- Semiconductors of Light : 

Photonic Crystals- Semiconductors of Light Semiconductors Periodic array of atoms Atomic length scales Natural structures Control electron flow 1950’s electronic revolution Photonic Crystals Periodic variation of dielectric constant Length scale ~  Artificial structures Control e.m. wave propagation New frontier in modern optics

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Natural Photonic Crystals: Structural Colours through Photonic Crystals Periodic structure  striking colour effect even in the absence of pigments

Artificial Photonic Crystals : 

Requirement: overlapping of frequency gaps along different directions High ratio of dielectric indices Same average optical path in different media Dielectric networks should be connected J. Wijnhoven & W. Vos, Science (1998) S. Lin et al., Nature (1998) Woodpile structure Inverted Opals Artificial Photonic Crystals

Photonic Crystals: Opportunities : 

Photonic Crystals complex dielectric environment that controls the flow of radiation designer vacuum for the emission and absorption of radiation Photonic Crystals: Opportunities Passive devices dielectric mirrors for antennas micro-resonators and waveguides Active devices low-threshold nonlinear devices microlasers and amplifiers efficient thermal sources of light Integrated optics controlled miniaturisation pulse sculpturing

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Defect-Mode Photonic Crystal Microlaser Photonic Crystal Cavity formed by a point defect O. Painter et. al., Science (1999)

Photonic Crystals Based Light Bulbs : 

3D Complete Photonic Band Gap Suppress blackbody radiation in the infrared and redirect and enhance thermal energy into visible Photonic Crystals Based Light Bulbs S. Y. Lin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. (2003) C. Cornelius, J. Dowling, PRA 59, 4736 (1999) “Modification of Planck blackbody radiation by photonic band-gap structures” Light bulb efficiency may raise from 5 percent to 60 percent 3D Tungsten Photonic Crystal Filament Solid Tungsten Filament

Solar Cell Applications : 

Solar Cell Applications Funneling of thermal radiation of larger wavelength (orange area) to thermal radiation of shorter wavelength (grey area). Spectral and angular control over the thermal radiation.

Foundations of Future CI : 

Fundamental Limitations switching time • switching intensity = constant Incoherent character of the switching  dissipated power Foundations of Future CI Cavity all-optical transistor Iout Iin IH H.M. Gibbs et. al, PRL 36, 1135 (1976) Operating Parameters Holding power: 5 mW Switching power: 3 µW Switching time: 1-0.5 ns Size: 500 m Photonic crystal all-optical transistor Probe Laser Pump Laser Operating Parameters Holding power: 10-100 nW Switching power: 50-500 pW Switching time: < 1 ps Size: 20 m M. Florescu and S. John, PRA 69, 053810 (2004).

Single Atom Switching Effect : 

Single Atom Switching Effect Photonic Crystals versus Ordinary Vacuum Positive population inversion Switching behaviour of the atomic inversion M. Florescu and S. John, PRA 64, 033801 (2001)

Quantum Optics in Photonic Crystals : 

Long temporal separation between incident laser photons Fast frequency variations of the photonic DOS Band-edge enhancement of the Lamb shift Vacuum Rabi splitting Quantum Optics in Photonic Crystals

Foundations for Future CI:Single Photon Sources : 

Foundations for Future CI:Single Photon Sources Enabling Linear Optical Quantum Computing and Quantum Cryptography fully deterministic pumping mechanism very fast triggering mechanism accelerated spontaneous emission PBG architecture design to achieve prescribed DOS at the ion position M. Florescu et al., EPL 69, 945 (2005)

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M. Campell et al. Nature, 404, 53 (2000) CI Enabled Photonic Crystal Design (I) Photo-resist layer exposed to multiple laser beam interference that produce a periodic intensity pattern 3D photonic crystals fabricated using holographic lithography Four laser beams interfere to form a 3D periodic intensity pattern 10 m  O. Toader, et al., PRL 92, 043905 (2004)

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O. Toader & S. John, Science (2001) CI Enabled Photonic Crystal Design (II)

CI Enabled Photonic Crystal Design (III) : 

CI Enabled Photonic Crystal Design (III)

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Transport Properties: Photons Electrons Phonons Photonic Crystals Optical Properties Rethermalization Processes: Photons Electrons Phonons Metallic (Dielectric) Backbone Electronic Characterization Multi-Physics Problem: Photonic Crystal Radiant Energy Transfer

Summary Designer Vacuum: Frequency selective control of spontaneous and thermal emission enables novel active devices PBG materials: Integrated optical micro-circuits with complete light localization Photonic Crystals: Photonic analogues of semiconductors that control the flow of light Potential to Enable Future CI: Single photon source for LOQC All-optical micro-transistors CI Enabled Photonic Crystal Research and Technology: Photonic “materials by design” Multiphysics and multiscale analysis