Liver tumors basic

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Liver Tumors:

Liver Tumors Sameer smadi MD, FACS Consultant hepatobiliary and liver transplantation King Hussien medical center - Jordan

Slide 2:

Identify the most important features of common benign liver tumors Know the risk factors, diagnosis, and management of hepatocellular carcinoma

Classification:

Classification Hemangioma Focal nodular hyperplasia Adenoma Liver cysts Primary liver cancers Hepatocellular carcinoma Fibrolamellar carcinoma Hepatoblastoma 2. Metastases Benign Malignant

Benign Liver Lesions:

Benign Liver Lesions Hemangioma Focal nodular hyperplasia Adenoma Cysts

Hemangioma Clinical Features:

Hemangioma Clinical Features The commonest liver tumor 5% of autopsies Usually single small Well demarcated capsule Usually asymptomatic

Hemangioma Diagnosis and Management:

Hemangioma Diagnosis and Management Diagnosis US: echogenic spot, well demarcated CT: venous enhancement from periphery to center MRI: high intensity area No need for FNA Treatment No need for treatment

CT/Hemangioma:

CT/Hemangioma

Focal Nodular Hyperplasia (FNH) Clinical Features:

Focal Nodular Hyperplasia (FNH) Clinical Features Benign nodule formation of normal liver tissue Central stellate scar More common in young and middle age women No relation with sex hormones Usually asymptomatic May cause minimal pain

Focal Nodular Hyperplasia (FNH) Diagnosis and Management:

Focal Nodular Hyperplasia (FNH) Diagnosis and Management Diagnosis : US: Nodule with varying echogenicity CT: Hypervascular mass with central scar MRI: iso or hypo intense FNA: Normal hepatocytes and Kupffer cells with central core. Treatment : No treatment necessary Pregnancy and hormones OK

CT/FNH:

CT/FNH

Hepatic Adenoma Clinical features:

Hepatic Adenoma Clinical features Benign neoplasm composed of normal hepatocytes no portal tract, central veins, or bile ducts More common in women Associated with contraceptive hormones Usually asymptomatic but may have RUQ pain May presents with rupture, hemorrhage, or malignant transformation (very rare)

Hepatic Adenoma Diagnosis and Management:

Hepatic Adenoma Diagnosis and Management DX US: filling defect CT: Diffuse arterial enhancement MRI: hypo or hyper intense lesion FNA : may be needed Tx Stop hormones Observe every 6m for 2 y If no regression then surgical excision

Adenoma:

Adenoma

Liver Cysts:

Liver Cysts May be single or multiple May be part of polycystic kidney disease Patients often asymptomatic No specific management required Hydated cyst

Malignant Liver Lesions:

Malignant Liver Lesions

Malignant Liver Tumors:

Malignant Liver Tumors Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Fibro-lamellar carcinoma of the liver Hepatoblastoma Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma Others

HCC: Incidence:

HCC: Incidence The most common primary liver cancer The most common tumor Increasing in US and all the world

HCC: Risk Factors:

HCC: Risk Factors The most important risk factor is cirrhosis from any cause: Hepatitis B (integrates in DNA) Hepatitis C Alcohol Aflatoxin Other

HCC: Clinical Features:

HCC: Clinical Features Wt loss and RUQ pain (most common) Asymptomatic Worsening of pre-existing chronic liver dis Acute liver failure O/E: Signs of cirrhosis Hard enlarged RUQ mass Liver bruit (rare)

HCC: Metastases:

HCC: Metastases Rest of the liver Portal vein Lymph nodes Lung Bone Brain

HCC: labs:

HCC: labs Labs of liver cirrhosis AFP (Alfa feto protein) Is an HCC tumor marker Values more than 100ng/ml are highly suggestive of HCC Elevation seen in more than 70% of pt

HCC: Diagnosis:

HCC: Diagnosis Clinical presentation Elevated AFP US Triphasic CT scan: very early arterial perfusion MRI Biopsy

US: HCC:

US: HCC

CT: Venous Phase:

CT: Venous Phase

CT: Arterial Phase:

CT: Arterial Phase

HCC: Prognosis:

HCC: Prognosis Tumor size Extrahepatic spread Underlying liver disease Pt performance status

HCC: Liver Transplantation:

HCC: Liver Transplantation Best available treatment Removes tumor and liver Only if single tumor less than 5cm or less than 3 tumors less than 3 cm each Recurrence rate is low Not widely available

HCC: Resection:

HCC: Resection Feasible for small tumors with preserved liver function (no jaundice or portal HTN) Recurrence rate is high

HCC: Local Ablation:

HCC: Local Ablation For non resectable pt For pt with advanced liver cirrhosis Alcohol injection Radiofrequency ablation Temporary measure only

Radio Frequency Ablation:

Radio Frequency Ablation

Ethanol Injection:

Ethanol Injection

HCC: Chemoembolization:

HCC: Chemoembolization Inject chemotherapy selectively in hepatic artery Then inject an embolic agent Only in pt with early cirrhosis No role for systemic chemotherapy

Chemoembolization:

Chemoembolization

Fibro-Lamellar Carcinoma:

Fibro-Lamellar Carcinoma Presents in young pt (5-35) Not related to cirrhosis AFP is normal CT shows typical stellate scar with radial septa showing persistant enhancement

Secondary Liver Metastases:

Secondary Liver Metastases The most common site for blood born metastases Common primaries : colon, breast, lung, stomach, pancreases, and melanoma Mild cholestatic picture (ALP, LDH) with preserved liver function Dx imaging or FNA Treatment depends on the primary cancer In some cases resection or chemoembolization is possible

Summary:

Summary Hemangioma Focal nodular hyperplasia Adenoma Liver cysts Primary liver cancers Hepatocellular carcinoma Fibrolamellar carcinoma Hepatoblastoma 2. Metastases Benign Malignant

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU

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