Nutrition and life processes 101

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Nutrition and life processes:

Nutrition and life processes By, Sameer D. Devidas




Respiration Four distinct processes must happen Pulmonary ventilation – moving air into and out of the lungs External respiration – gas exchange between the lungs and the blood Transport – transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues Internal respiration – gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues

What is Human Respiration? :

What is Human Respiration? The human respiratory system allows one to obtain oxygen, eliminate carbon dioxide. Breathing consists of two phases, inspiration and expiration Inspiration- the process of taking in air Expiration- the process of blowing out air

Respiratory System Functions :

Respiratory System Functions Gas exchange : Oxygen enters blood and carbon dioxide leaves Regulation of blood pH : Altered by changing blood carbon dioxide levels Sound production : Movement of air past vocal folds makes sound and speech Olfaction : Smell occurs when airborne molecules drawn into nasal cavity Thermoregulation : Heating and cooling of body Protection : Against microorganisms by preventing entry and removing them

Respiratory System Divisions:

Respiratory System Divisions Upper tract Nasal cavity, pharynx Lower tract Larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

The Nose / nasal cavity:

The Nose / nasal cavity Provides an airway for respiration Moistens and warms air Filters inhaled air Resonating chamber for speech Houses olfactory receptors Skin is thin – contains many sebaceous glands

The Pharynx:

The Pharynx Funnel-shaped passageway Connects nasal cavity and mouth Shared by the digestive and respiratory systems Divided into three sections by location


Nasopharynx Only an air passageway Closed off during swallowing Oropharynx Two types of tonsils Palatine tonsils Lingual tonsils Laryngopharynx Passageway for both food and air

Upper Respiratory Tract Functions :

Upper Respiratory Tract Functions Passageway for respiration Receptors for smell Filters incoming air to filter larger foreign material Moistens and warms incoming air Resonating chambers for voice

The Larynx:

The Larynx Commonly called as voice box Prevent food and drink from entering the trachea Passageway for air Produces Sound It connects the pharynx to the trachea Manipulates pitch and volume

The Trachea:

The Trachea Called as windpipe Tube connects pharynx and larynx to the lungs Allows the passage of air


Bronchi Bronchial tree - extensively branching respiratory passageways Primary bronchi (main bronchi) Largest bronchi Secondary bronchi Tertiary bronchi - branch into each lung segment Bronchioles - little bronchi, less than 1 mm in diameter Terminal bronchioles - less than 0.5 mm in diameter

The lungs:

The lungs Primary organs of respiration Located near the backbone on either side of the heart Function : to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in the of gas exchange

Structures of the Respiratory Zone:

Structures of the Respiratory Zone Consists of air-exchanging structures Respiratory bronchioles – branch from terminal bronchioles Lead to alveolar ducts Lead to alveolar sac


Alveoli Structure that has the form of a hollow cavity Found in lungs Terminal ends of the respiratory tree Particular to mammalian lungs Carbon dioxide rich blood is pumped from the rest of the body into the alveolar blood vessels where, through diffusion, it releases its carbon dioxide and absorbs oxygen.

Lower Respiratory Tract :

Lower Respiratory Tract Functions: Larynx: maintains an open airway, routes food and air appropriately, assists in sound production Trachea: transports air to and from lungs Bronchi: branch into lungs Lungs: transport air to alveoli for gas exchange

Amazing facts:

Amazing facts Your right lung has three lobes and your left lung only has two. The right lung is a little larger than the left lung. A person sleeping almost always breathes twelve or fifteen times a minute. The exhaling rate is faster in kids than in adults The trachea is made out of cartilage shaped rings The fastest recorded “ sneeze speed” is 165 km per hour It is healthier to breathe through your nose than your mouth, because your nose hairs and mucus clean the air.


references Dorling Kindersley –ultimate visual dictionary of science

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