Chemical reactions in human body

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Chemical reactions in human body:

Chemical reactions in human body Sameer devidas

Haemoglobin carrying oxygen :

Haemoglobin carrying oxygen Oxygen is one of the substances transported with the assistance of red blood cells. The red blood cells contain a pigment called haemoglobin , each molecule of which binds four oxygen molecules. Oxyhaemoglobin forms. The oxygen molecules are carried to individual cells in the body tissue where they are released. The binding of oxygen is a reversible reaction. Hb + 4O2 Hb.4O2

Aerobic Respiration Is a Reaction With Oxygen :

Aerobic Respiration Is a Reaction With Oxygen Aerobic cellular respiration  is the opposite process of photosynthesis in that energy molecules are combined with oxygen we breathe to release energy needed by our cells plus carbon dioxide and water. Energy used by cells is chemical energy in the form of ATP. Here is the overall equation for aerobic cellular respiration: C 6 H 12 O 6  + 6O 2  → 6CO 2  + 6H 2 O + energy (36 ATPs)

Anaerobic Respiration:

Anaerobic Respiration A naerobic respiration describes a  set of chemical reactions  that allow cells to gain energy from complex molecules without oxygen. Your muscles cells perform  anaerobic respiration  whenever you exhaust the oxygen being delivered to them, such as during intense or prolonged exercise. Anaerobic respiration by yeast and bacteria is harnessed for fermentation, to produce ethanol, carbon dioxide, and other chemicals that make cheese, wine, beer, yogurt, bread, and many other common products. C 6 H 12 O 6   → 2C 2 H 5 OH + 2CO 2  + energy


Bread Muscles

Chemical digestion :

Chemical digestion Thousands of chemical reactions take place during digestion. As soon as you put food in your mouth, an enzyme in your saliva called amylase starts to break down sugars and other carbohydrates into simpler forms your body can absorb. Hydrochloric acid in your stomach reacts with food to break it down, while enzymes cleave proteins and fats so they can be absorbed into your bloodstream through the walls of the intestines . Enzymes speed up chemical digestion. These are natural catalysts made of proteins.


. Different enzymes catalyse different digestion reactions .

Chemical reactions in micro-organisms, plants, and cells:

C hemical reactions in micro-organisms, plants, and cells .

Photosynthesis Is a Reaction To Make Food in Plant:

Photosynthesis Is a Reaction To Make Food in Plant Plants apply a chemical reaction called photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into food (glucose) and oxygen. It's one of the most common everyday chemical reactions and also one of the most important, since this is how plants produce food for themselves and animals and convert carbon dioxide into oxygen.

Ethanol Fermentation :

Ethanol Fermentation Yeast and certain bacteria perform ethanol fermentation where pyruvate (from glucose metabolism) is broken into ethanol and carbon dioxide. The net chemical equation for the production of ethanol from glucose is: C6H12O6 (glucose) → 2 C2H5OH (ethanol) + 2 CO2 (carbon dioxide) Ethanol fermentation is used the production of beer, wine and bread. It's worth noting that fermentation in the presence of high levels of pectin result in the production of small amounts of methanol, which is toxic when consumed.

Lactic Acid Fermentation :

Lactic Acid Fermentation The pyruvate molecules from glucose metabolism (glycolysis) may be fermented into lactic acid. Lactic acid fermentation is used to convert lactose into lactic acid in yogurt production. It also occurs in animal muscles when the tissue requires energy at a faster rate than oxygen can be supplied. The next equation for lactic acid production from glucose is: C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) → 2 CH 3 CHOHCOOH (lactic acid) The production of lactic acid from lactose and water may be summarized as: C 12 H 22 O 11 (lactose) + H 2 O (water) → 4 CH 3 CHOHCOOH ( lactic acid )

Food spoilage:

Food spoilage Yeasts are able to grow in foods with a low pH (5.0 or lower) and in the presence of sugars, organic acids, and other easily metabolized carbon sources . During their growth, yeasts metabolize some food components and produce metabolic end products. This causes the physical, chemical, and sensible properties of a food to change, and the food is spoiled. The growth of yeast within food products is often seen on their surfaces, as in cheeses or meats, or by the fermentation of sugars in beverages, such as juices, and semiliquid products, such as syrups and jams.

Chemiluminescence :

Chemiluminescence The emission of light by a substance as a result of undergoing a chemical reaction that does not involve an increase in its temperature. Chemiluminescence usually occurs when a highly oxidized molecule, such as a peroxide, reacts with another molecule. For example, if [A] is luminol and [B] is hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a suitable catalyst we have Luciferin + O2 +ATP luciferase Oxyluciferin + CO2 + AMP + PPi + light


. the protein that gives fireflies their glow and its co-factor, luciferin , are used to produce green light through the consumption of ATP. This reaction is used in many applications, including the effectiveness of cancer drugs that choke off a tumor's blood supply. Another protein, aequorin , found in certain jellyfish, which produces blue light in the presence of calcium). It can be used in molecular biology to assess calcium levels in cells.

Amazing chemical reactions:

Amazing chemical reactions


REFERENCES NCERT text book std X # CBSE text book std X



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