logging in or signing up THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE - CELL samanthabarreto Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Copy Does not support media & animations WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 1742 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (1) Dislike it (0) Added: July 01, 2012 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 3 Presentation Description CLASS 9 Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript A TOUR OF THE CELL : A TOUR OF THE CELL the fundamental unit of life PRESENTATION BY: SAMANTHA BARRETO Slide 2: CELLS WERE FIRST DISCOVERED BY HIM IN 1665 ROBERT HOOKE ROBERT HOOKE’S MICROSCOPE : ROBERT HOOKE’S MICROSCOPE ROBERT OBSERVED : : ROBERT OBSERVED : CORK COMES FROM THE BARK OF THE TREE HONEY COMB ROBERT CALLED : ROBERT CALLED THESE LITTLE COMPARTMENTS AS CELLS. CELL IS A LATIN WORD FOR ‘ A LITTLE ROOM’. COMPOUND MICROSCOPE : COMPOUND MICROSCOPE ONION PEEL : ONION PEEL 1)THESE STRUCTURES LOOK SIMILAR TO EACH OTHER. 2) TOGETHER THEY FORM A BIG STRUCTURE LIKE AN ONION BULB. 3) THE CELLS OF AN ONION PEEL WILL ALL LOOK SAME,REGARDLESS OF THE SIZE OF THE ONION. 4) THESE SMALL STRUCTURES ARE THE BASIC BUILDING UNITS OF THE ONION BULB AND ARE CALLED CELLS. UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS : UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS ORGANISMS THAT HAVE A SINGLE CELL. AMOEBA PARAMOECIUM CHLAMYDOMONAS MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS : MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS ORGANISMS HAVING MORE THAN ONE CELL TO PERFORM VARIOUS FUNCTIONS. ANIMALS PLANTS FUNGI DIFFERENT CELLS : DIFFERENT CELLS BONE CELL OVUM SPERM BLOOD CELL NERVE CELL FAT CELL CELL : CELL A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. CELL : CELL THE SHAPE AND SIZE OF CELLS ARE RELATED TO THE SPECIFIC FUNCTION THEY PERFORM. EACH LIVING CEL LHAS THE CAPACITY TO PERFORM CERTAIN BASIC FUNCTIONS. CELL CONTAINS A SPECIFIC COMPONENT CALLED ORGANELLES. EACH KIND OF CELL ORGANELLE PERFORMS A SPECIAL FUNCTION. ALL CELLS ARE FOUND TO HAVE THE SAME ORGANELLES,IRRESPECTIVE OF THEIR FUNCTION AND WHICH ORGANISM THEY ARE FOUND IN. Why are cells of different shapes and sizes found in the human body? : Why are cells of different shapes and sizes found in the human body? > The shape and size of the cells depend upon the function they perform. In a human body, each organ performs a specific function, hence the cells of different organs have different shapes and sizes. Who discovered cells, and how? : Who discovered cells, and how? > Cells were first discovered by Robert Hooke, in1665. He observed a thin slice of cork under his self designed microscope.This slice of cork resembled the structure of the honeycomb consisting of small compartments. He named these small compartments as cells. Why is the cell called the structural and functional unit of life? : Why is the cell called the structural and functional unit of life? > Cell is called the structural and functional unit of life because It gives structure to the living organism. It helps the living organism to perform various life functions. Cell membrane or Plasma membrane : Cell membrane or Plasma membrane It is the outermost covering of the cell that separates the contents of the cell from the external environment. Allows the entry and exit of materials in and out of the cell.It also prevents the movement of some other material and is therefore called a selectively permeable membrane. The plasma membrane is flexible and is made up of organic molecules like proteins and lipids. DIFFUSION : DIFFUSION GASEOUS EXCHANGE TAKES PLACE FROM A REGION OF HIGHER CONCENTRATION TO A REGION OF LOW CONCENTRATION. OSMOSIS : OSMOSIS The movement of water from a region of high water concentration through a semi- permeable membrane to a region of low water concentration. How do substances like CO2 and water move in and out the cell? Discuss. : How do substances like CO2 and water move in and out the cell? Discuss. As the cell functions the concentration of CO2 in the cell increases whereas the concentration of CO2 in the external environment is low. CO2 moves out of the cell from a region of higher concentration to the external environment which is the region of lower concentration. Water moves in and out the cell from a region of higher concentration through a semi- permeable membrane to a region of lower concentration by the process of osmosis. Difference between : Difference between Diffusion Osmosis It can occur in any medium. It does not require a semi-permeable membrane. It occurs only in a liquid medium. It requires a semi-permeable membrane. Slide 21: What is a hypotonic solution? Hypotonic solution is the solution surrounding the cell which has higher water concentration than that in the cell. Water molecules are free to pass across the cell membrane in both directions, but more water will come into the cell than will leave. The net result is that the water enters the cell and the cell is likely to swell up. HYPOTONIC SOLUTION : HYPOTONIC SOLUTION When is a solution said to be isotonic? : When is a solution said to be isotonic? When the medium surrounding a cell has the same concentration of water as that in the cell it is said to be isotonic. Water crosses the cell membrane in both the directions, but the amount going in is the same as the amount going out, so there is no overall movement of water. The cell will stay the same size. ISOTONIC SOLUTION : ISOTONIC SOLUTION What is a hypertonic solution? : What is a hypertonic solution? When the medium surrounding a cell has lower concentration of water than that in the cell it is said to be hypertonic. Water crosses the membrane in both the directions, but this time more water leaves the cell than enters it. Therefore the cell will shrink. HYPERTONIC SOLUTION : HYPERTONIC SOLUTION What is Plasmolysis? : What is Plasmolysis? Plasmolysis is the phenomenon by which a plant cell shrinks away from the cell wall when it loses water by osmosis. PLASMOLYSIS : PLASMOLYSIS What is endocytosis? : What is endocytosis? Endocytosis is the process by which a cell is able to engulf food and other material from its external environment due to the flexibility of the plasma membrane. Example : Amoeba acquires its food through such processes. ENDOCTYOSIS : ENDOCTYOSIS Plasma membrane is called a selectively permeable membrane. Why? : Plasma membrane is called a selectively permeable membrane. Why? > Plasma membrane is called a selectively permeable membrane because it allows some materials to enter and leave the cell. Cell wall : Cell wall >Hard outer covering of the cell. >Present outside the cell membrane. >Cell wall is composed of cellulose. >Cellulose is a complex substance and provides structural strength to plants. >Cell wall is present in the plant cell and helps the plant to withstand the environmental changes. Nucleus : Nucleus >Has a double layered covering called nuclear membrane. Nuclear membrane has pores which allow the transfer of material from inside the nucleus to its outside (cytoplasm). Contains chromosomes which are visible as rod-shaped structures only when the cell is about to divide. Chromosomes contain information for inheritance of features from parents to the next generation in the form of DNA molecules. (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid). Nucleus : Nucleus DNA molecules contain information necessary for constructing and organising cells. Functional segments of DNA are called genes. When the cell is not dividing, DNA is present as a part of the chromatin material. Chromatin material is visible as entangled mass of thread like structures. Whenever the cell is about to divide , the chromatin material gets organised into chromosomes. Plays an important role in cellular reproduction. It helps in determining the way the cell will develop and what form it will exhibit on maturity by directing the chemical activites of the cell. Significance of membranes : Significance of membranes Example : Viruses Viruses lack any membranes and hence do not show any characteristics of life until they enter a living body and use its cell machinery to multiply. Cytoplasm : Cytoplasm It is the fluid content inside the plasma membrane. Contains specialised cell organelles. Cell organelles : Cell organelles 1) Endoplasmic reticulum 2) Golgi apparatus 3) Lysosomes 4) Mitochondria 5) Plastids 6) Vacuoles Endoplasmic Reticulum : Endoplasmic Reticulum ER is a large network of membrane bound tubes and sheets. Extends throughout cytoplasm Two types - Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) Serves as channels for the transport of materials between various regions of the cytoplasm or between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Functions as a cytoplasmic framework providing a surface for biochemical activities. RER : RER Arranged into flattened sacs Ribosomes on surface give it a rough appearance Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. Cells that specialize in secreting proteins have lots of rough ER SER : SER A series of interconnected tubules . No ribosomes on surface. Helps in the manufacture of fat molecules or lipids. In liver cells of vertebrates, SER detoxifies many poisons and drugs. Membrane Biogenesis : Membrane Biogenesis It is the process of formation of the cell membrane from proteins and lipids. GOLGI APPARATUS : GOLGI APPARATUS First discovered by Camillo Golgi. It consist of a system of membrane- bound vesicles arranged parallel to each other in stacks called cisterns. The material synthesised near the ER is packaged and dispatched to various targets inside and outside the cell through the Golgi apparatus. Its functions include storage , modification and packaging of products in vesicles. Involved in the formation of the lysosome. LYSOSOMES : LYSOSOMES >Waste disposal system of the cell. Keep the cell clean by digesting any foreign material as well as worn out cell organelles. Contain powerful digestive enzymes capable of breaking down all organic material. When the cell gets damaged, lysosomes may break open and the enzymes digest their own cell. Thus known as suicide bags of a cell. Mitochondria : Mitochondria Known as the powerhouse of the cell. The energy required for various chemical activities is released by the mitochondria in the form of ATP molecules.( Adenosine triphosphate). ATP is known as the energy currency of the cell. Mitochondria have two membrane coverings. Outer membrane is very porous. Inner membrane is deeply folded. Mitochondria are able to make their own proteins as they have their own DNA and ribosomes . Plastids : Plastids Present in plant cells. Two types- 1) Chromoplasts (coloured) 2) Leucoplasts (colourless) > Plastids containing green pigment chlorophyll are called Chloroplasts. Leucoplasts store materials as starch, oils and protein granules. Plastids contain membrane layers embedded in a material called stroma. Has a similar structure like the mitochondria. Have their own DNA and ribosomes. CHLOROPLASTS : CHLOROPLASTS Vacuoles : Vacuoles Storage sac for solid or liquid contents. Small size vacuoles are present in animals. Large in plants. In plant cells, vacuoles are full of cell sap and provide turgidity and rigidity to the cell. Vacuoles store amino acids, sugars, various organic acids and some proteins. In Amoeba, the food vacuole contains the food items that the Amoeba has consumed. Vacuoles play an important role in expelling excess water and some wastes from the cell. Slide 53: Overview of a plant cell Slide 54: Overview of an animal cell Can you name the two organelles we have studied that contain their own genetic material? : Can you name the two organelles we have studied that contain their own genetic material? Ans : Mitochondria and plastids are the two organelles that contain their own genetic material. Both these organelles have their own DNA and ribosomes. Make a comparison and write down ways in which plant cells are different from animal cells. : Make a comparison and write down ways in which plant cells are different from animal cells. What would happen to the life of a cell if there was no Golgi apparatus? : What would happen to the life of a cell if there was no Golgi apparatus? (i) Membranes of the Golgi apparatus are often connected to ER membranes. It collects simpler molecules and combines them to make more complex molecules. These are then packaged in small vesicles and are either stored in the cell or sent out as per the requirement. Thus, if the Golgi apparatus is absent in the cell, then the above process of storage, modification, and packaging of products will not be possible. (ii) The formation of complex sugars from simple sugars will not be possible as this takes place with the help of enzymes present in Golgi bodies. (iii) The Golgi apparatus is involved in the formation of lysosomes. Thus, if the Golgi body is absent in a cell, the synthesis of lysosomes will not be possible in the cell. Which organelle is known as the powerhouse of the cell? Why? : Which organelle is known as the powerhouse of the cell? Why? Mitochondria are known as the powerhouse of cells. Mitochondria create energy for the cell, and this process of creating energy for the cell is known as cellular respiration. Most chemical reactions involved in cellular respiration occur in the mitochondria. The energy required for various chemical activities needed for life is released by the mitochondria in the form of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) molecules. For this reason, mitochondria are known as the powerhouse of cells. Where do the lipids and proteins constituting the cell membrane get synthesized? : Where do the lipids and proteins constituting the cell membrane get synthesized? Lipids and proteins constituting the cell membrane are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum. 1)SER (Smooth endoplasmic reticulum) helps in the manufacturing of lipids. 2)RER (Rough endoplasmic reticulum) has particles attached to its surface, called ribosomes. These ribosomes are the site for protein synthesis. How does an Amoeba obtain its food? : How does an Amoeba obtain its food? Amoeba obtains its food through the process of endocytosis. The flexibility of the cell membrane enables the cell to engulf the solid particles of food and other materials from its external environment. What is osmosis? : What is osmosis? The movement of water molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration through a selectively permeable membrane is called osmosis. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.