6 basic classes of Nutrients : 6 basic classes of Nutrients Protein Carbohydrates
Fats Water Nutrition: is the process by which the body takes in and uses food.: Nutrition: is the process by which the body takes in and uses food. Nutrients:
Chemical substances in food that helps maintain the body.
Some help to supply energy
All help to build tissues and cells
Regulates body processes (like Breathing)
NO ONE food (or supplement) provides all the nutrients your body supplies. A calorie is the energy value of food.Protein=4 cal/gm of foodCarbohydrates=4 cal/gm of foodFat=9 cal/gm of food: A calorie is the energy value of food. Protein=4 cal/gm of food Carbohydrates=4 cal/gm of food Fat=9 cal/gm of food Teen boys- Min. of 2800 calories/day
Teen girls- Min. of 2200 calories/day
Metabolism: is the chemical processes by which your body breaks down food to release the energy
Diet: all the foods a person eats over a long period of time.
For good health: number of calories in the food should equal the amount of calories needed in your body. Slide4: Trans fat: unsaturated fat formed from hydrogenation: an unsaturated fat formed during the hydrogenation of vegetable oils to produce margarine.Trans-fatty acids are viewed as a health risk because they raise cholesterol levels. Carbohydrate: body’s chief source of energy (preferred choice of calories.): Carbohydrate: body’s chief source of energy (preferred choice of calories.) 2 types of carbohydrates
Simple or sugars, are present naturally in fruits, some vegetables and milk (provide quick energy)
Complex or starches, are found in great supply in rice and other grains, seeds, nuts, dried peas and potatoes (provide Long lasting energy) Carbohydrate Function: Carbohydrate Function What it does for the body
Furnishes body with energy
Helps digest fats efficiently
Used for growth and maintenance (if not for energy)
Rich in fiber- helps to prevent cancer
Protein: nutrients that help build and maintain body tissues: Protein: nutrients that help build and maintain body tissues Made up of small units called Amino Acids
Vital: chemical compound found in every body cells
Sources: meat, poultry, fish, nuts, peas, milk, eggs, and dried beans Protein Function: Protein Function Provide amino acids essential for growth, maintenance and repair of tissues
Aids in formation of enzymes, some hormones and antibodies.
Antibodies help identify and destroy bacteria and viruses that cause disease in the body
Regulates body processes
When used for energy above is not available. Fats: represent the most concentrated form of energy available.: Fats: represent the most concentrated form of energy available. Lipids: fatty substance that doesn't dissolve in water.
Saturated fats found in meat or dairy products (Bad Fats)
Unsaturated fats are found in plant products (Good Fats)
Cholesterol: fatlike substance produced in the liver of all animals . Your body needs some cholesterol, like fat but it can make what it needs. Function of Fat: Function of Fat A source of energy
Essential for making certain vitamins available (A,E,D & K)
Stored as fat tissue which surrounds and protects organs
Linoleic acid an essential fatty acid essential for growth and healthy skin
Sources: ice cream, milk, cheese, butter, milk, egg yolk, and corn oil.
Vitamins: helps regulate many vital body processes, including the digestion, absorption and metabolism of other nutrients: Vitamins: helps regulate many vital body processes, including the digestion, absorption and metabolism of other nutrients Classified into two groups: water-soluble and fat-soluble.
Water-soluble: dissolve in water and thus pass easily into the bloodstream in the process of digestion. Excess amounts are excreted in urine.
Fat-soluble: absorbed and transported by fat. Vitamin A, E, D and K Fat-Soluble Vitamins: Fat-Soluble Vitamins Water-Soluble Vitamins: Water-Soluble Vitamins Minerals: assist in the regulation of chemical reactions: Minerals: assist in the regulation of chemical reactions Body can not make minerals
Minerals are manufactured by non living things, minerals occur naturally in rocks and soil.
There are 24 different minerals. You need 6 of the minerals: calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and chlorine. You only need a trace of other minerals.
Minerals: Minerals Minerals cont.: Minerals cont. Water: essential for all life processes, including energy production: Water: essential for all life processes, including energy production 65% of body weight
Nearly all body chemical reactions take place in water
Makes up blood
Sources: water, juices, soups, vegetables, watermelon, apples Water function : Water function Helps in the digestive process
Removes body waste (urine and large intestines)
Regulated body temperature (sweat)
Lubricated joints and cushions organs and tissues
We require at least 8 glasses of fluid per day. Some people may need more. End of Part 1: End of Part 1 New section How to tell if it’s a serving size: How to tell if it’s a serving size Here are some examples of serving sizes, for use in gauging your portions:
· Three ounces of cooked meat, fish or poultry is the size of a deck of cards · Two tablespoons of peanut butter is the size of a golf ball · A medium piece of fruit looks like a baseball · A medium bagel is the size of a hockey puck · One ounce of cheese is the size of four dice · A small baked potato is the size of a computer mouse · The serving size for raw vegetables, yogurt and fruit is one cup – which will fit into an average woman’s hand. What is a serving size?: What is a serving size? Bread and Grain
1 slice of bread
½ cup cooked rice, pasta or cereal
½ bagel or English Muffin
3-4 plain crackers
2 medium cookies Meat, nuts and beans
2 ½ to 3 ounces of cooked beef, pork, lamb, poultry or fish
½ Cup cooked beans
2 tablespoons peanut butter
1/3 Cup nuts More serving sizes…: More serving sizes… Fruits
1 medium raw
¾ cup fruit juice
½ cup chopped, cooked or canned (beware of heavy syrup)
¼ C dried Vegetables
½ cup chopped, cooked or raw
1 Cup raw, leafy
¾ vegetable juice
½ Cup scalloped potatoes
10 French fries RDA : RDA Recommended Daily Allowance
Based on a 2000 calorie diet Total Fat : Total Fat Less than
65 grams Saturated Fat: Saturated Fat Less than 20 Grams Cholesterol: Cholesterol Less than 300 Milligrams Sodium: Sodium Less than 2,400 Milligrams Total Carbohydrates: Total Carbohydrates 300 grams Protein: Protein 50 grams Dietary Fibers: Dietary Fibers 25 Grams