01 Chapter 01 LEADERSHIP

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The Nature and Meaning of Leadership:

CHAPTER 01 KARDAN INSTITUE OF HIGHER EDUCATION The Nature and Meaning of Leadership 1

Meaning of Leadership:

Meaning of Leadership To be a leader one has to make a difference and facilitate positive change. The common characteristic of leaders is their ability to inspire and stimulate others to achieve worthwhile goals. Leadership is the ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals. 2

Definitions of Leadership:

Definitions of Leadership Interpersonal influence directed through communication, toward goal attainment. The influential increment over and above mechanical compliance with directions and orders. The principal dynamic force that motivates and coordinates the organization in the accomplishment of its objectives. 3

Leadership as Partnership:

Leadership as Partnership An important current thrust in understanding leadership is to regard it as a long-term relationship or partnership between leader and group members. According to Peter Block, in a partnership the leader and group members are connected in such a way that the power between them is approximately balanced. Block also describes partnership as the opposite of parenting (in which one person – the parent – takes the responsibility for the welfare of the other – the child). Partnership occurs when control shifts from the leader to the group member toward shared decision making. 4

Leadership as Partnership:

Leadership as Partnership This partnership is based on: Exchange of Purpose – Through dialogue with people at many levels, the leader helps articulate a widely accepted vision. A right to say no – The belief that group members may express a contrary opinion. Joint accountability – that each person takes personal accountability for the success and failure of the organizational unit. Absolute honesty – Not telling the truth is an act of betrayal in partnership. 5

Leadership Versus Management:

Leadership Versus Management Leading is a major part of a manager’s job, yet a manager must also plan, organize, and control. Leadership deals with the interpersonal aspects of a manager’s job. Whereas planning, organizing, and controlling deal with administrative aspects. Leaderships deals with change, motivation, inspiration, and influence. 6

Leadership Versus Management:

Leadership Versus Management Leader establishes direction, a manager plans and budgets for that. Leadership involves aligning people, a manager organizes and staffs. Leader motivates and inspires, a manger controls and solves problems. Leader produces change, often to a dramatic degree, a manger produces a degree of predictability and order. 7

Leadership Versus Management:

Leadership Versus Management A Leader is . . . Visionary Passionate Creative Flexible Inspiring Innovative Courageous Imaginative Experimental Independent One who shares knowledge A Manager is . . . Rational Consulting Persistent Problem-solving Tough-minded Analytical Structured Deliberative Authoritative Stabilizing One who centralizes knowledge 8

Opinion: Leadership does not make a difference:

Opinion : Leadership does not make a difference Three major arguments against the importance of leadership are: Substitutes for Leadership, Leader Irrelevance, and Complexity Theory 1. Substitutes for Leadership At times competent leadership is not necessary, and incompetent leadership can be counterbalanced by certain factors in the work situation. These factors may be labeled as substitutes for leadership: Closely knit teams of highly trained individuals. Intrinsic satisfaction. Computer technology Professional norms 9

1) Substitutes for Leadership:

1) Substitutes for Leadership Closely knit teams of highly trained individuals When members of cohesive, highly trained group are focused on a goal, they may require almost no leadership to accomplish their task. Intrinsic satisfaction Employees engaged in work they find strongly self motivating, or intrinsically satisfying, require minimum of leadership. Computer technology Some companies today use computer-aided monitoring and computer networking to take over many of the supervisor’s leadership functions. Professional norms Workers who incorporate strong professional norms often require minimum of supervision and leadership. 10

2) Leader Irrelevance:

2) Leader Irrelevance 2. According to Jeffery Pfeffer, leadership is irrelevant to most organizational outcomes. He argues that: Factors outside the leader's control have a larger impact on the business outcomes than do leadership actions. High-level leaders have unilateral control over only a few resources. Firms tend to choose new organizational leaders whose values are compatible with those of the firm. The leaders therefore act in ways similar to previous leaders. 11

3) Complexity Theory:

3) Complexity Theory 3. This theory holds that organizations are complex systems that cannot be explained by the usual rules of nature. Leaders and managers can do little to alter the course of complex organizational system. Ultimately all companies will die but at different times, because it is the system, not leadership and management, that dominates. 12

Leadership Roles:

Leadership Roles Leading is a complex activity, so its not surprising that Henry Mintzberg and other researchers identified nine roles that can be classified as part of the leadership function of management: Figurehead Spokesperson Negotiator Coaching and Motivator Team Builder Team Player Technical Problem Solver Entrepreneur Strategic Planner 13

Satisfactions of Being a Leader:

Satisfactions of Being a Leader A feeling of power and prestige A chance to help others grow and develop High income Respect and status Good opportunities for advancement A feeling of “being in on” things An opportunity to control money and other resources 14

Frustrations of Being a Leader:

Frustrations of Being a Leader Too much uncompensated overtime Too many headaches Not enough authority to carry out responsibility Loneliness Too many problems involving people Too much organizational politics The pursuit of conflicting goals Being perceived as unethical, especially if you are a corporate executive 15

Additional Discussion:

Additional Discussion A Framework for Understanding Leadership L = f (l × gm × s) Essential Qualities of Effective Followers ( Robert E. Kelly) Self-management Commitment Competence and focus Courage 16

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