POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

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POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS : 

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Political Organizations : 

Political Organizations Part of a total organization concerned with the preservation of social order within a specified territory by duly organized authority. Every state needs it political organization in order to exist and survive.

ELEMENTS OF THE STATE : 

ELEMENTS OF THE STATE PEOPLE

SOVEREIGNTY - the exclusive right to control a government, a country, a people, or oneself. : 

SOVEREIGNTY - the exclusive right to control a government, a country, a people, or oneself.

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it exercises powers over the state. GOVERNMENT

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– refers to the ability to control actions of others through such diverse means as brute forces, negotiation, promise or reward, social exchange of goods and services or appeals to common good. -it must be legitimate or justified, if not, then it is exercised under coercion or duress. Power

If power is legitimate, then it is authority. Authority comes from the following: : 

If power is legitimate, then it is authority. Authority comes from the following: Traditional Authority – exercised by the leader which he inherited from his predecessor. It is legitimate power that is passed from generation to generation.

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Charismatic Authority – a person exercised based on his extraordinary and personal gift of grace. His authority depends on his ability to inspire people to express his will.

Rational-legal Authority : 

Rational-legal Authority – basis of this authority is the willingness of the ruled to accept and follow the laws established by the political order. -the leader rules under limited length of time, usually under explicit limitations set by the constitutions. -the leader may be replaced but the authority remains.

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Band – it existed in the hunting and gathering societies. There is no permanent member nor leader. They only organize themselves for the purpose of doing together the economic activities. DEVELOPMENTAL OF POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS:

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– also called “acephalus” meaning “no head”, means there is no central authority which governs the tribe. It was headed by the headman, big man or chieftain. Members are more or less permanent and occupy a more or less dwelling. – tribes have grown, become complex and evolved to be known as kingdoms. Monarchy emerged as rulers are later called kings, rajas, czars or emperors. Tribe

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– most powerful social and political institution. It refers to the number of people occupying a particular territory having an organized government and independent of external control. -often mistaken as government but government is an entirely different term. There can be no state without a government but a government can exist without a state. State

THEORIES OF THE ORIGIN OF STATE: : 

THEORIES OF THE ORIGIN OF STATE: Divine Right Theory – upholds that the state is created by God who has chosen His vice-regents to rule the earth. Social Contract Theory – argues that the state is a product of man’s contract or covenant. Patriarchal Theory – maintains tact state is a mere extension of family, family develops into clan, clan into tribe and tribe into state. Necessity and Force Theory – believe that the state is founded because there are weak ones who seek protection so the strong one’s protect and rule them in return. Economic Theory provides an outlet for research in all areas of economics based on rigorous theoretical reasoning and on topics in mathematics that are supported by the analysis of economic problems. Instinctive Theory – is any theory of value in economics which holds that the value of an object, good or service, is intrinsic or contained in the item itself. Historical or Evolution Theory –

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TYPE OF POLITICAL SYSTEM Democracy -derived from words “demos” and “cratos” means “people” and “rule” respectively. Thus, democracy means rule of the people. It is an ideology, a theory, a form of government and a political system. It believes that individuals are free, rational, equal, and possess certain rights. -ruled by mass or majority of the people

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Totalitarianism – here, all functions are regulated by the State. It refers to a one party rule. Under this system, individuals are expandable for the good of state, genocide, or the systematic destruction of people by the State may decide such group as an enemy.

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Colonialism – characterized by the relationship of two states, one strong, the other weak. All decisions are made by the strong country, the mother country. The colonized yield or submit to the rule of the colonizing state. In a colonial rule the control of government lies in the external force which is in the hands of a mother country. However, such may be destroyed by a revolution or joint agreement.

Government – aggregate of persons or authorities which rule a society. : 

Government – aggregate of persons or authorities which rule a society. Different forms of governments are classified as follows: ACCORDING TO WHOM SOVEREIGNTY RESIDES: Monarchy- ruled by a person, king or queen, or an emperor. It can either be absolute or constitutional.

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Aristocracy or Oligarchy – ruled by few privileged class, whose right arises from the fact of birth, wisdom or wealth.

ACCORDING TO THE MANNER OF INSTITUTING OFFICIALS: : 

ACCORDING TO THE MANNER OF INSTITUTING OFFICIALS: Elective – the officials are chosen by popular vote. Term is fixed by the constitution. Hereditary – the transfer or political honor and title is through succession. Their term is indefinite.

ACCORING TO THE DISTRIBUTION OR CONCENTRATION OF POWERS. : 

ACCORING TO THE DISTRIBUTION OR CONCENTRATION OF POWERS. Unitary all governmental power are concentrated in one supreme organ The local government units are mere agents of the central supreme organ.

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Federal – one which the governmental powers are distributed among the central and local government the powers being vested to each by a common sovereign as enumerated in the constitution. Two governments are independent yet coordinated with each other.

ACCORDING TO THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT: : 

ACCORDING TO THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary – owe its existence to the legislative branch. There is a union of two branches. There is a normal head (a king or queen or an emperor). The legislative branch is supervisor than the executive branch. Thus the legislative branch can manipulate the executive branch.

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Presidential – the executive branch is politically and legally independent of legislative branch. There is a restrict separation of government powers. The chief executive (the president), does not owe his existence to the legislative branch.

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