pests of brinjal

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PANDIT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE & RESEARCH INSTITUTE KARAIKAL-609603 :

PANDIT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE & RESEARCH INSTITUTE KARAIKAL-609603 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY & NEMATOLOGY 2/22/2012 1 M.Sakthivel

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PESTS OF BRINJAL AND THEIR MANAGEMENT Prepared by M.Sakthivel 2/22/2012 2 M.Sakthivel

BRINJAL :

BRINJAL Common name : Brinjal /Egg plant Scientific name : Solanum melongenaa Family : Solanaceae Origin : India A rea under cultivation : 5 lakh hectares A verage yield : 200 to 350 quintals/ ha M ain growing areas : Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Flower Fruit Plant 2/22/2012 3 M.Sakthivel

Classification of Pests :

Classification of Pests Borers Leaf Feeders Sap Feeders 2/22/2012 4 M.Sakthivel

Pests of Brinjal:

P ests of Brinjal Common name Scientific name Family Order Shoot & fruit borer Leucinodes orbonalis Pyraustidae Lepidoptera Stem borer Euzophera perticella Phycitidae Lepidoptera Bud worm Scrobipalpa blapsigona Gelechiidae Lepidoptera BORERS 2/22/2012 5 M.Sakthivel

LEAF FEEDERS:

LEAF FEEDERS Common name Scientific name Family Order Leaf roller Antoba olivacea Noctuidae Lepidoptera Plume moth Pterophorous lienigianus Pterophoridae Lepidoptera Spotted leaf beetle E. vigintioctopunctata E. dodecastigma Coccinellidae Coleoptera Ash weevil Myllocerus subfasciatus M. undecimpustulatus M. discolor Curculionidae Coleoptera 2/22/2012 6 Sakthi

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Common name Scientific name Family Order Leaf webber Psara bipunctalis Pyraustidae Lepidoptera Sphingid Acherontia styx Sphingidae Lepidoptera Hairy caterpillar Selepa celtis S. docilis Noctuidae Noctuidae Lepidoptera Leaf miner Scrobipalpa ergasima Gelechiidae Lepidoptera Grasshoppers Atractomorpha crenulata Oxya japonica Poekilocerus pictus Acrididae Orthoptera 2/22/2012 7 M.Sakthivel

SAP FEEDERS:

SAP FEEDERS Common name Scientific name Family Order Aphids Aphis gossypii Myzus persicae Aphididae Hemiptera Cotton leaf hopper Amrasca devastans Cicadellidae Hemiptera Brown leaf hopper Cestius phycitis Cicadellidae Hemiptera Mealy bug Coccidohystrix insolitus Pseudococcidae Hemiptera 2/22/2012 8 M.Sakthivel

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Common name Scientific name Family Order Black bug Anoplocnemis phasiana Coreidae Hemiptera Spiny lace wing bug Urentius hystricellus Tingidae Hemiptera Thrips Thrips tabaci Frankliniella schultzei Scirtothrips dorsalis Thripidae Thysanoptera Black ant Camponotus infuscus Formicidae Hymenoptera 2/22/2012 9 M.Sakthivel

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Common name Scientific name Family Order Brown ant Solenopsis geminata Formicidae Hymenoptera Scale insects Aonidiella aurantii Aspidiotus destructor Parasaissetia nigra Diaspididae Diaspididae Coccidae Hemiptera Hemiptera Hemiptera Carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus Tetranychidae Acarina 2/22/2012 10 M.Sakthivel

BORERS :

BORERS

Shoot & fruit borer: Leucinodes orbonalis F:Pyraustidae,O: Lepidoptera :

Shoot & fruit borer: Leucinodes orbonalis F:Pyraustidae,O: Lepidoptera Distribution Most destructive pest of brinjal , found throughout the country . Host range Also attacks potato and other solanaceous crops. Damage symptoms: When the infestation is on shoots, they bend down and whither, affected leaves and shoot wither and dry At later stage of growth, caterpillars bore into flower buds and fruits , sometimes from under the calyx, when no visible symptoms are apparent. Damaged flower buds are shed and fruits show circular holes. The large holes seen on fruits are usually the exit holes of the caterpillars. The content of vitamin C in the fruits of the brinjal is found to be reduced 2/22/2012 12 M.Sakthivel

Primary damage:

Primary damage Shoot damage 2/22/2012 13 M.Sakthivel

Biology:

B iology Pupal : 7-11 days Pupation: in a tough greyish boat shaped cocoon Adult: 2-5 days White coloured moth with brownish and red markings Larval: 9- 28 days Larva with sparsely distributed hairs on the body and brownish head Egg period 3-5 days 250 Creamy white eggs/ female Eggs laid singly or in patches – leaves, tender shoots, flower buds Total life cycle is 25-40 days 2/22/2012 14 M.Sakthivel

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2/22/2012 15 M.Sakthivel

Adults:

Adults 2/22/2012 16 M.Sakthivel

Management:

Management Remove and destroy the affected tender shoots , fallen fruits and fruits with bore holes Avoid continuous cropping of brinjal Resistant varieties: Annamalai and pusa purple Egg parasitoid: Trichogramma chilonis @ 50,000/ ha, four times from 30 DAT at 20 days interval 2/22/2012 17 M.Sakthivel

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Insecticides : Spray , one of following chemicals in 625L of water per hectare. 2 L of Endosulfan 35 EC 2 L of Quinalphos 25 EC 1.25 L of Triazophos 40 EC 2 Kg of Carbaryl 50 WP 400 ml of Decamethrin 2.8 EC WARNING: Repeated use of the same insecticide should be avoided to prevent development of resistance in the pest. 2/22/2012 18 M.Sakthivel

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2/22/2012 19 M.Sakthivel

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2/22/2012 20 M.Sakthivel

What is Bt Brinjal? :

What is Bt Brinjal ? Bt Brinjal is a transgenic brinjal created out of inserting a gene [Cry 1Ac] from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis into Brinjal . The insertion of the gene into the Brinjal cell in young cotyledons has been done through an Agrobacterium-mediated vector , along with other genes like promoters, markers etc. This is said to give the Brinjal plant resistance against lepidopteran insects like the Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer ( Leucinodes orbonalis ) and Fruit Borer ( Helicoverpa armigera ). 2/22/2012 21 M.Sakthivel

Contd….:

Contd …. The transformation work on Bt Brinjal started in Year 2000. Biosafety tests like pollen flow studies, acute oral toxicity etc., were taken up along with back-crossing programme from 2002 . After two years of greenhouse evaluation, in 2004, multi-locational field trials were conducted in 11 locations with five hybrids [ Mahyco’s MHB-4 Bt Brinjal , MHB-9 Bt Brinjal , MHB-10 Bt Brinjal , MHB-80 Bt Brinjal and MHB-99 Bt Brinjal ]. This was also the year when ICAR [Indian Council for Agricultural Research] took up trials with the same hybrids under the All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Cultivation in 11 locations. 2/22/2012 22 M.Sakthivel

Why Bt Brinjal ????:

Why Bt Brinjal ???? It is reported that the average shoot damage in Bt Brinjal hybrids ranged from 0.04% to 0.3% as compared to 0.12% to 2.5% in non- Bt Brinjal hybrids. The percentage of damaged fruits reportedly ranged from 2.5% to 20% in Bt Brinjal to 24% to 58% in non- Bt counterparts No significant difference was noted between Bt Brinjal and Non- Bt Brinjal , as per the company which did biosafety tests like acute oral toxicity, sub-chronic oral toxicity in rats, allergenecity of protein to rats, germination, weediness and aggressiveness tests, soil micro-biota studies etc. This will help small and marginal farmers from having to use 25-80 sprays of pesticides which are ineffective, says the company . 2/22/2012 23 M.Sakthivel

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Larva borer into mainstem of young and old plants and move downwards. Top shoots of young plants crump and wither . Older plants become stunted. Fruit bearing capacity is adversely affected. There is a distinct thickening at the entry point. Stem borer: Euzophera perticella Phycitidae:Lepidoptera Distribution All over India Host range Brinjal , Potato, Chillies , Tomato Nature of Damage : 2/22/2012 24 M.Sakthivel

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Stem borer damage ( Euzophera perticella ) Larvae enters main stem and makes tunnel which results in either stunting or withering of plants. Stem borer damage Healthy stem and Damaged stem 2/22/2012 25 M.Sakthivel

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Biology Egg period: 3-10 days 104 - 363 eggs / female Creamy coloured , scale like eggs Singly or in patches – young leaves, petioles and branches Larval: 26 – 58 days Full grown larva: Creamy white with a few bristle like hairs and red head Adult: Greyish brown forewings with transverse lines in the middle and white hindwings Pupal : 9 -16days Pupation: inside the larval tunnel 2/22/2012 26 M.Sakthivel

MANAGEMENT ::

MANAGEMENT : Collect and destroy the damaged and dead plants Light trap @ 1/ha to attract and kill adults Larval parasitoids: Pristomerus testaceus P. euzopherae Insecticides: Endosulfan 35 EC @ 1500 ml + neem oil 1500ml /ha – one month after planting at 15 days interval Avoid using synthetic pyrethriods : Deltamethrin 28 EC, Fenvalerate 20 EC and Cypermethrin 10 and 25 EC 2/22/2012 27 M.Sakthivel

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LEAF FEEDERS 2/22/2012 28 M.Sakthivel

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Distribution Serious pest in Africa and north America Host range Brinjal and other solanaceous plants Almost every cucurbit Hadda beetle or spotted beetle: Epilachna vigintioctopunctata E. implicata , E. Dodecastigma Coccinellidae : Coleoptera Damage is done by Both adults and larvae Adults feed on the upper epidermis resulting in transparent markings. Larvae feed on leaves by nibbing the upper and lower epidermal surfaces. Nature of Damage : 2/22/2012 29 M.Sakthivel

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Biology Egg period: 2-4 days Cigar shaped yellow coloured eggs, 10 – 20 eggs in groups – undersurface of the leaves Grub: 10-13 days Yellowish, stout with spines all over the body Pupal : 3 –5 days Dark coloured pupae Adult: Red in colour 7-14 black spots on each elytron TLC: 20-50 days 2/22/2012 30 M.Sakthivel

DAMAGE:

DAMAGE 2/22/2012 31 M.Sakthivel

Management ::

Management : Collect damaged leaves with grubs and egg masses and destroy them Shake plants to dislodge grubs, pupae and adults Conserve natural enemies in brinjal ecosystem Insecticides Spraying of Trichlofon Dieldrin Malathion @ 2ml /lit to reduce the population of the beetle 2/22/2012 32 M.Sakthivel

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Notching of leaf margins by adults. Grubs feeds on roots resulting Nature of Damage : In wilting Notching of leaf margins by adults. Grubs feeds on roots resulting In wilting and death of plants and death of plants. Distribution India and Sri Lanka Host range Brinjal , Potato, Tomato and Millets Ash weevil: Myllocerus subfaciatus Curculionidae:Coleoptera 2/22/2012 33 M.Sakthivel

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Biology Egg period : 6-7 days 500 eggs / female Eggs laid in the soil Grub: 30-45 days White coloured,apodous and cylindrical Pupal : 10-12 days Pupation: in the soil in earthen cocoons Pupa is creamy white in color Adult: Adult is a grayish weevil. 3-6mm long life span is 1-4 months Breeds 3-4 times a year Grub 8mm 2/22/2012 34 M.Sakthivel

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35 Brinjal Ash Weevil Adult 3-6mm 2/22/2012 M.Sakthivel

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Management Plough into a depth of 7.5cm Apply Neem cake @ 500 kg / ha or Endosulfan 4 % D 25 kg/ ha at the time of last ploughing Spray 2.5 kg of Carbaryl 50 wp in 375 liters of water per hectare . Endosulfan 35 EC @ 1500 ml/ha Systemic insecticide like carbofuran are also effective 2/22/2012 36 M.Sakthivel

SAP FEEDERS:

SAP FEEDERS

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Distribution All over India Host range Brinjal Brown leafhopper: Cestius phycitis Cicadellidae : Hemiptera Biology Small light brown leafhopper and bright yellow marks on its thorax 2/22/2012 38 M.Sakthivel

MANAGEMENT:

MANAGEMENT Rogue out infected plants as soon as they appear in the field and completely destroy them . Before transplantation dip the seedlings in 0.2% carbofuran 50 STD solution to control the insect vectors. Spray 4-5 g at 10 days interval with methyl parathion 0.5% or dimethoate 0.3% on monocrotophos 0.5% or endosulfan 0.5% 2/22/2012 39 M.Sakthivel

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Distribution India and Sri Lanka Host range Brinjal Damage symptoms Attacked leaves have yellowish patches near the mid rib. Nymphal cases and frass can be seen on the underside of the leaves. Lace wing bug: Urentius hystricellus Tingidae : Hemiptera 2/22/2012 40 M.Sakthivel

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Biology Egg period: 5-7 days Shiny white in colour 35-44 white nibble shaped eggs/ female Incubation period is 3-12 days Nymph: 6- 8 days Nymphs are pale yellow in color prominent spines present on the body. 2mm in length and 1.35 in width Adult : Adults are small bugs of 3mm in length Pronotum and hemi elytra are reticulated. (lace like) Body is flat and shiny 2/22/2012 41 M.Sakthivel

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NYMPH ADULT 2/22/2012 42 M.Sakthivel

Damage Symptoms:

Damage Symptoms 2/22/2012 43 M.Sakthivel

MANAGEMENT:

MANAGEMENT Collect and destroy the infected plants Spray dimethoate 30 EC @ 1 lit / ha or methyl demeton 25 EC @ 1250 ml / ha 2/22/2012 44 M.Sakthivel

OTHER PESTS:

OTHER PESTS Bud worm : Scrobipalpa blapsigona , Gelechiidae : Lepidoptera Leaf roller: Antoba olivacea , Noctuidae : Lepidoptera Leaf roller: Pterophorus lienigianus , Pterophoridae : Lepidoptera Leaf webber : Psara bipunctalis , Pyraustidae:Lepidoptera Sphingid moth: Acherontia styx , Sphingidae : Lepidoptera Hairy caterpillar: Selepa celtis , Noctuidae : Lepidoptera S. docilis Leaf miner: Scrobipalpa ergasima , Gelechiidae : Lepidoptera Grasshoppers: Atractomorpha crenulata , Acrididae:Orthoptera Oxya japonica Poekilocerus pictus 2/22/2012 45 M.Sakthivel

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Aphid: Aphis gossypii , Aphididae : Hemiptera Cotton leafhopper : Amrasca devastans , Cicadellidae : Hemiptera Mealy bug: Coccidohysterix insolitus , Pseudococcidea : Hemiptera Black bug: Anoplocnemis phasiana , Coreidae : Hemiptera Cow bug: Tricentrus bicolor , Membracidae : Hemiptera Thrips : Thrips tabaci , Thripidae : Thysanoptera Frankliniella schultzei , Thripidae : Thysanoptera Scirtothrips dorsalis , Thripidae : Thysanoptera Scale insects: Aonidiella aurantii , Diaspididae : Hemiptera Aspidiotus destructor , Diaspididae : Hemiptera Parasaissetia nigra , Diaspididae : Hemiptera 2/22/2012 46 M.Sakthivel

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Black ant: Camponotus infuscus , Formicidae:Hymenoptera Brown ant : Silicosis germinate , Formicidae:Hymenoptera Carmine spider mite: Tetranychus cinnabarinus , Tetranychidae : Acarina 2/22/2012 47 M.Sakthivel

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Leaf webber Leaf roller Aphid 2/22/2012 48 M.Sakthivel

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Black ant Brown ant Carmine spider mite 2/22/2012 49 M.Sakthivel

References :

References http:// www.ikisan.com/education.html http:// agritech.tnau.ac.in/crop_protection/crop_prot_crop_insect-veg_brinijal.html http:// www.agriculture.gov.bn/website2003/ninformation/fact30.htm http://student.biology.arizona.edu/honors2002/group10/181H.html 2/22/2012 50 M.Sakthivel

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2/22/2012 51 M.Sakthivel

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