# Torque Presentation

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## Presentation Description

A Presentation on Torque. This presentation explains what bolt torque means and how to acheive the proper torque value.

By: DanHutson (86 month(s) ago)

## Presentation Transcript

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Griffin Tools and Supply, LLC Specializing in Undercar Products and Eco-Friendly Shop Supplies

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Proper Use of a Torque Wrench

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According to Wikipedia– A torque wrench is a tool used to precisely apply a specific torque to a fastener such as a nut or bolt. It was invented by Conrad Bahr in 1918 while working for the NY City Water Department. It was designed to prevent over tightening of bolts on steam pipe repairs underground. A torque wrench is used where the tightness of bolts is crucial. It allows the operator to measure the torque applied to the fastener so it can be matched to the specifications for a particular application. This permits proper tension and loading of all parts. A torque wrench measures torque as a proxy for bolt tension. The technique suffers from inaccuracy due to inconsistent or un-calibrated friction between the fastener and its mating hole. Measuring bolt tension (bolt stretch) is more accurate but often torque is the only practical means of measurement.

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According to Webster – Torque -- Technical Definition: A twisting or wrenching effect exerted by a force acting at a distance on a body, equal to the force multiplied by the perpendicular distance between the line of action of the force and the center of rotation at which it is exerted.

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Origin of the Foot Pound (ft. lb.) The ancient Romans used the human foot as a unit of measure. The Roman Libra, meaning scales, and is the derivation of the abbreviation “lb.” for pound.

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Origin of the Newton meter (Nm) The Newton is the unit of force derived in the SI system; it was named after Sir Isaac Newton, renown scientist and mathematician. It has a mass of 102 grams, about the size of a small apple. The meter is a unit of length, equal to 39.37 inches. Sir Isaac Newton 1643 - 1727

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BASIC TORQUE FORMULA

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L x F = T Length x Force = Torque Torque is directly proportionate when figured at right angles.

L x F = T

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Torque is expressed in both length and weight units: 1 ft. lb. = 12 in. lbs. 1 in. lb. = 16 in. ozs. Units by which torque is measured can be converted to other units without actually changing the torque value

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1 Foot Length 1 Foot Pound of Torque What is a Foot Pound (ft. lb.)? T = L x F

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2 Foot Length 400 Foot Pounds of Torque T = L x F What is a Foot Pound (ft. lb.)?

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36” Length 36 Inch Pounds of Torque What is a Inch Pound (in. lb.)? T = L x F

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What is a Newton meter (Nm) ? 2 meters Length 2 Nm of Torque 1 Newton Force (.225 lb.) T = L x F

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TORQUE, FRICTION TENSION AND

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When torque is applied to a fastener the fastener is stretched. When the fastener is loosened it tries to maintain its original size Internal tension is clamping force Clamping force. (Pre-load) By the use of a fastener, we’re trying to make two pieces (lug nut and stud) act as one The greater the tension, the greater the clamping force

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Bolt Over-Stretched Over-Stretched to Failure A fastener is just like a spring, it can be over-torqued and stretched too much causing distortion and possibly failure

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45% to overcome friction of head surface 45% to overcome friction of threads *90% of force applied using a torque wrench is lost due to friction * Only 10% of force is used to stretch bolt Torque applied to a fastener:

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Rundown Phase Free running fastener (may or may not have prevailing torque) Alignment Phase Fastener and joint mating surfaces are drawn into alignment (lug nut, stud and hub) Elastic Phase – Should be the third and Final Stage! Slope of the torque/angle curve is constant Fastener is elongated but will return to original length upon loosening = Proper Torque Applied Plastic or Yield Phase – OVERTORQUED CONDITION Permanent deformation and elongation of the fastener will occur, called “Necking”, and finally breakage Phases of Fastening

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Phases of Fastening

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Bonus Question – What Grade is a Socket Head Cap Screw? Grade 8+ One of the most common industrial fasteners in use today

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Anytime lock nuts are used; the prevailing torque of the nuts must be taken into account when determining the final torque value Prevailing Torque

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For Example: Let’s assume the nylon lock nut requires 30 in. lbs. of torque to turn. Your desired torque is 100 in. lbs., so you would set your wrench to 130 in. lbs. Prevailing Torque

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1. Friction / Condition of parts: 90/10 Rule ! 90% of torque is friction-10% is stretch Rust? Debris? Stripped threads? Cross-threaded? 2. Torque Wrench: Is your wrench working properly? Correctly set? Correct units? Wrench in calibration? 3. Operator: Has the operator had proper torque training? Three primary factors that affect the application of torque

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PROPER USE OF TORQUE TOOLS

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How to Set a Click Type Wrench Unlock the Lock Ring, and rotate until the top edge of the lock ring lines up with the number 0. Next, rotate the handle until the number 4 is aligned with the center line mark. Set to 64 ft.lbs.

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Only be used from 20% to 100% of full scale Should be checked for accuracy regularly Should never be used in a “breakaway” situation Should always be stored at it’s lowest setting Most types should be “cycled” before use Should never be used in excess of it’s capacity Click Type Torque Wrench

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Always hold handle in the center of the grip Approach final torque slowly and evenly The “sweet spot” is between 30-80% of the wrenches capacity The wrench selected should be scaled in the same torque units that are specified Should be calibrated if dropped Click Type Torque Wrench

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If the Torque Wrench is supplied with one or two extension handles, they MUST be attached when using the wrench, otherwise the tool will not be accurate Torque Wrench Extensions

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Setting the tool requires only fingertip force since the adjustment mechanism is not under load. There is no need to “Cycle" a split beam torque wrench before using it the first time. There is no need to adjust to the lowest torque setting after use. Split Beam Torque Wrench

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Setting the tool requires only fingertip force since the adjustment mechanism is not under load. Split Beam Torque Wrench

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Be cognizant of parallax error (Error in reading an instrument employing a scale and pointer because the observer's eye and pointer are not in a line perpendicular to the plane of the scale.) Operator can see the effect of torque on the work piece More accurate because they are typically used more accurately Memory needle records highest torque value Dial Type

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Accuracy from 20% to 100% of full scale Approach final torque slowly and evenly The wrench selected should be scaled in the same torque units that are specified Caution if used in a “breakaway” situation Dial Type

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Accuracy from 20% to 100% of full scale Approach final torque slowly and evenly The wrench selected should be scaled in the same torque units that are specified Can NOT be used in a “breakaway” situation Can NOT be calibrated Beam Type

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Highly accurate Should be treated as a precision instrument Always pull from center of grip Never exceed rated capacity Never expose to moisture Normally two units of torque: ft. lb. or Nm Digital Type

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Torque Multipliers are used anywhere there are space and/or high torque requirements. Because of the high torque output, they are generally used in heavy equipment manufacturing and maintenance, construction, shipbuilding and anywhere there are high torque requirements with limited space. The Gear head multipliers are available in several different gear ratios, depending on the specific application. Multipliers

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Multipliers How they Work A torque multiplier has an internal input pinion that meshes with a series of planetary gears that surround it. When rotated, the input force is multiplied several times, and the output force is significantly higher. The reaction bar must be firmly braced before applying input torque

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TA = Desired Torque L = Effective Length A = Added Length of adapter TW = New Setting Formula:

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TA = 250 ft. lbs. L = 18.75” A = 2” TW = Formula: 226 ft. lbs.

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TA = 250 ft. lbs. L = 18.75” A = 1.5” TW = Formula: 231 ft. lbs.

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TA = 250 ft. lbs. L = 18.75” A = TW = Formula: 250 ft. lbs. 0”

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TA = 250 ft. lbs. L = 18.75” A = TW = Formula: 257 ft. lbs. - .5”

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A “cheater bar” should NEVER be used on a torque wrench to apply excess leverage Do not use with sockets or fasteners showing wear or cracks Ratchet mechanism may slip or break if dirty, mismatched or worn parts are used Make sure direction lever is fully engaged Wear Safety Glasses when using torque wrenches SAFETY is ALWAYS worth repeating

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Almost all torque tools and torque calibration equipment are manufactured using A.S.M.E. (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) standards. “Founded in 1880 as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, today's A.S.M.E. promotes the art, science & practice of mechanical & multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the globe.” The current A.S.M.E. specification for mechanical torque instruments is A.S.M.E. B107.14 – 2004 The current A.S.M.E. specification for electronic torque instruments is A.S.M.E. B107.28 – 2005 Torque Tool Specifications

### The Problem - Wheel Offs :

The Problem - Wheel Offs Negative consequences of un-torqued lug nuts. Replacement and liability costs Damaged image of service providers Lower customer retention

### The Problem - Wheel Offs :

A major problem in the Automotive industry is “Wheel-Offs”, the internet is full of customer complaints of wheels falling off a vehicle after some type of wheel service. Many of these issues can be avoided with the right processes and verification that ALL lug nuts have been torqued correctly. The consequences of incorrectly torqued lug-nuts include: Repair, replacement and liability insurance costs Negative publicity and damaged image of service providers Negative customer experience lowering customer retention Potential for physical injury for your customer and others The Problem - Wheel Offs

### Negative Publicity :

Negative Publicity 500,000+ references to wheels falling off and numerous negative customer reviews in Google alone

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INCREASE SERVICE SPEED, ACCURACY, AND CUSTOMER SAFETY / SATISFACTION! Document exactly what torque was put on which lug nut on which vehicle and when PROGRAMMABLE FROM CAR MANUFACTURER TORQUE DATABASE SMART WIRELESS PROGRAMMABLE TORQUE WRENCH WHEEL SERVICE WIRELESS WHEEL TORQUE SYSTEM The Solution

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Current Process Controlled Process Variability —tools, equipment, technician, vehicle specs. Correct torque applied? Not verifiable, provable, or documentable. Technician tools in spec? Unknown. Dramatic reduction in variability tools, equipment, technician, vehicle specs. Correct torque applied? Verifiable, provable, and documentable. Technician tools in spec? Known. Higher productivity. Allows shop to remove torque re -check step, if required. The result? Improved service level. Improved safety and reduced liability. More satisfied customers. The Solution WHEEL SERVICE WIRELESS WHEEL TORQUE SYSTEM

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SYSTEM DEVELOPED SPECIFICALLY FOR TIRE SHOPS SPEED AND ACCURACY – LIMIT NUMBER OF TOOLS USED TIGHTEN WHEEL NUTS TO MANUFACTURER'S TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS REDUCE THE POSSIBILITY OF MIS-TIGHTENING WHEEL NUTS WIRELESS OPERATION Easily programmed based on vehicle data from installed torque database Wireless transmission of torque settings to wrench Actual torque values recorded for each wheel nut If a wheel nut has not been torqued the system will not let the operator continue If a technician tries to tighten the same nut twice or the nut is already at or beyond specifications the system recognizes it and will not continue Recorded torque values transmitted back to point of sale for customer record and/or sales receipt POTENTIALLY REDUCES LIABILITY OF WHEEL NUT FAILURE / WHEEL OFF The Solution WHEEL SERVICE WIRELESS WHEEL TORQUE SYSTEM

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SIMPLE ORDER ENTRY OPEN WORK ORDER SCREENS ORDER ENTRY CAN BE A STAND ALONE SYSTEM OR ADDED TO SHOP/COMPANY OPERATING SYSTEM The Solution WHEEL SERVICE WIRELESS WHEEL TORQUE SYSTEM

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SIMPLE ORDER LIST SCREEN AND OPEN WORK ORDER SCREENS COMPANY NAME ORDER ENTRY CAN BE A STAND ALONE SYSTEM OR ADDED TO SHOP/COMPANY OPERATING SYSTEM The Solution WHEEL SERVICE WIRELESS WHEEL TORQUE SYSTEM

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WIRELESS SMART WRENCH CONNECTED TO A SMART SYSTEM TECHNICIAN EASILY FINDS THE CORRECT WORK ORDER The Solution WHEEL SERVICE WIRELESS WHEEL TORQUE SYSTEM

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WIRELESS SMART WRENCH CONNECTED TO A SMART SYSTEM WRENCH DISPLAYS TO TECHNICIAN: THE PROGRAMMED TORQUE SETTING SELECTED WHEEL LOCATION NUMBER OF WHEEL NUTS REQUIRED TO BE TIGHTENED SMART WRENCH WILL NOT LET THE TECHNICIAN PROCEED: UNLESS ALL NUTS ARE TIGHTENED TO SPECIFICATION IF TRYING TO TIGHTEN THE SAME WHEEL NUT TWICE IF MISSING OR FORGETTING TO TIGHTEN A WHEEL NUT 6 The Solution WHEEL SERVICE WIRELESS WHEEL TORQUE SYSTEM

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WIRELESS SMART WRENCH CONNECTED TO A SMART SYSTEM WHEEL NUT INSTALLATION INFORMATION EASILY TRANSMITTED BACK FOR: PRINTING OF WHEEL AND INDIVIDUAL WHEEL NUT TORQUE VALUES ON CUSTOMER DOCUMENTATION ARCHIVING OF CUSTOMER RECORDS SHOWING WORK HAS BEEN COMPLETED CORRECTLY POSITIVE DATA TRANSMISSION VERIFICATION When all torque requirements have been completed, user easily sends results back to the database with a single push of a button The Solution WHEEL SERVICE WIRELESS WHEEL TORQUE SYSTEM

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BENEFITS OF A DOCUMENTED TORQUE SYSTEM SIMPLIFY WHEEL SERVICE OPERATIONS REDUCE THE NUMBER AND COMPLEXITY OF TOOLS INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR WHEEL INSTALLATION Torque Limiting Extensions — 45 ft lbs torque extension Wireless Torque Wrench STANDARDIZE SYSTEM PLATFORM FOR THE SERVICE BAY AND P.O.S. SYSTEM INCREASE SPEED AND ACCURACY OF INSTALLATION PROCESS REDUCE POSSIBILITY FOR TECHNICIAN ERROR TIGHTEN WHEEL NUTS TO OEM TORQUE REQUIREMENTS SIMPLE TO USE WITHOUT SPECIAL TRAINING CONFIRMATION OF COMPLETION WHEEL INSTALLATION PROCESS STEPS PROTECT THE CUSTOMER'S VEHICLE FROM DAMAGE PROTECT YOUR COMPANY AND REPUTATION The Solution WHEEL SERVICE WIRELESS WHEEL TORQUE SYSTEM

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Procedures: Wheel Types; Hub centric - The center bore hole of a wheel matches the hub diameter of the vehicle. This centers the wheel via the center hole rather than the lug nuts. When aftermarket wheels are installed it may be necessary to add Hub centric ring(s) - A nylon insert for the center bore of the wheel that keeps the wheel concentric to the vehicle's hub during installation. Lug centric - When the wheel is centered by the bolt holes/ lug nuts of the wheel, rather than by the center bore. Lug centric wheels should be balanced from the bolt holes. Lug centric wheels should be tightened (torqued) prior to putting the vehicle back on the ground to avoid putting undue pressure on the lugs. Pre-Torque – A lot of torque is not better than a little for wheel studs. When lug nuts are tightened, studs actually stretch. The resulting tension holds on the wheels. When the nuts are removed, the studs spring back to their original length. Over-torquing stretches the spring out, causing an undetected “yield” that may result in broken studs.To prevent over-torquing of the wheels, a 45 ft/lbs torque extension (1/2” drive GREEN ) should be used to tighten wheels prior to final torquing. NOTE: Torque Extensions are designed for optimal performance at 100 psi of air pressure. Higher air pressure will effect the final torque. The Solution

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If you have any questions please call Bob Griffin @ (847) 651-3099 or visit our website @ www.griffintoolsandsupply.com Thank You! Griffin Tools and Supply, LLC Specializing in Undercar Products and Shop Supplies