HUMANLIFESTYLE AND ITS EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT

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m.sai vineeth

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HUMANLIFESTYLE AND ITS EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT:

Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes impacts on biophysical environments , biodiversity and other resources. [1][2] The term anthropogenic designates an effect or object resulting from human activity. The term was first used in the technical sense by Russian geologist A. P. Pavlov , and was first used in English by British ecologist Arthur Tansley in reference to human influences on climax plant communities. [3] The atmospheric scientist Paul Crutzen introduced the term " anthropocene " in the mid-1970s. [4] The term is sometimes used in the context of pollution emissions that are produced as a result of human activities but applies broadly to all major human impacts on the environment. [5] The environmental impact of agriculture varies based on the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world. HUMANLIFESTYLE AND ITS EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT

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Fishing down the foodweb . The environmental impact of fishing can be divided into issues that involve the availability of fish to be caught, such as overfishing , sustainable fisheries , and fisheries management ; and issues that involve the impact of fishing on other elements of the environment, such as by-catch . These conservation issues are part of marine conservation , and are addressed in fisheries science programs. There is a growing gap between how many fish are available to be caught and humanity’s desire to catch them, a problem that gets worse as the world population grows. Similar to other environmental issues , there can be conflict between the fishermen who depend on fishing for their livelihoods and fishery scientists who realise that if future fish populations are to be sustainable then some fisheries must reduce or even close. [ citation needed ] The journal Science published a four-year study in November 2006, which predicted that, at prevailing trends, the world would run out of wild-caught seafood in 2048. The scientists stated that the decline was a result of overfishing , pollution and other environmental factors that were reducing the population of fisheries at the same time as their ecosystems were being degraded. Yet again the analysis has met criticism as being fundamentally flawed, and many fishery management officials, industry representatives and scientists challenge the findings, although the debate continues. Many countries, such as Tonga , the United States , Australia and New Zealand , and international management bodies have taken steps to appropriately manage marine resources.

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The environmental impact of electricity generation is significant because modern society uses large amounts of electrical power. This power is normally generated at power plants that convert some other kind of energy into electrical power. Each such system has advantages and disadvantagesThe environmental impact of nuclear power results from the nuclear fuel cycle , operation, and the lingering effects of the Chernobyl disaster Kiviõli Oil Shale Processing & Chemicals Plant in ida-Virumaa , Estonia The environmental impact of the oil shale industry includes the consideration of issues such as land use , waste management , and water and air pollution caused by the extraction and processing of oil shale . Surface mining of oil shale deposits causes the usual environmental impacts of open-pit mining . In addition, the combustion and thermal processing generate waste material, which must be disposed of, and harmful atmospheric emissions, including carbon dioxide , a major greenhouse gas . Experimental in-situ conversion processes and carbon capture and storage

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technologies may reduce some of these concerns in future, but may raise others, such as the pollution of groundwater. [20] The environmental impact of petroleum is often negative because it is toxic to almost all forms of life. The possibility of climate change exists. Petroleum, commonly referred to as oil, is closely linked to virtually all aspects of present society, especially for transportation and heating for both homes and for commercial activities.

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The Wachusett Dam in Clinton, Massachusetts . The environmental impact of reservoirs is coming under ever increasing scrutiny as the world demand for water and energy increases and the number and size of reservoirs increases. Dams and the reservoirs can be used to supply drinking water , generate hydroelectric power, increasing the water supply for irrigation , provide recreational opportunities and to improve certain aspects of the environment. However, adverse environmental and sociological impacts have also been identified during and after many reservoir constructions. Whether reservoir projects are ultimately beneficial or detrimental—to both the environment and surrounding human populations— has been debated since the 1960s and probably long before that. In 1960 the construction of Llyn Celyn and the flooding of Capel Celyn provoked political uproar which continues to this day. More recently, the construction of Three Gorges Dam and other similar projects throughout Asia , Africa and Latin America have generated considerable environmental and political debate.

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Livestock ignore wind turbines, [21] and continue to graze as they did before wind turbines were installed. Compared to the environmental impact of traditional energy sources, the environmental impact of wind power is relatively minor. Wind power consumes no fuel, and emits no air pollution , unlike fossil fuel power sources. The energy consumed to manufacture and transport the materials used to build a wind power plant is equal to the new energy produced by the plant within a few months. While a wind farm may cover a large area of land, many land uses such as agriculture are compatible, with only small areas of turbine foundations and infrastructure made unavailable for use. [22] There are reports of bird and bat mortality at wind turbines, as there are around other artificial structures. The scale of the ecological impact may [23] or may not [24] be significant, depending on specific circumstances. Prevention and mitigation of wildlife fatalities, and protection of peat bogs , [25] affect the siting and operation of wind turbines. There are conflicting reports about the effects of noise on people who live very close to a wind turbine. The environmental impact of cleaning agents is diverse. In recent years, measures have been taken to The environmental impact of paint is diverse. Traditional painting materials and processes can have harmful effects on the environment , including those from the use of lead and other additives. Measures can be taken to reduce environmental impact, including accurately estimating paint quantities so that wastage is minimized, use of paints, coatings, painting accessories and techniques that are environmentally preferred. The United States Environmental Protection Agency guidelines and Green Star ratings are some of the standards that can be applied

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A pulp and paper mill in New Brunswick , Canada. Although pulp and paper manufacturing requires large amounts of energy, a portion of it comes from burning wood waste. The environmental impact of paper is significant, which has led to changes in industry and behaviour at both business and personal levels. With the use of modern technology such as the printing press and the highly mechanised harvesting of wood, paper has become a cheap commodity. This has led to a high level of consumption and waste. With the rise in environmental awareness due to the lobbying by environmental organizations and with increased government regulation there is now a trend towards sustainability in the pulp and paper industry .

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The environmental impact of pesticides is often greater than what is intended by those who use them. Over 98% of sprayed insecticides and 95% of herbicides reach a destination other than their target species, including nontarget species, air, water, bottom sediments, and food. [26] Pesticide contaminates land and water when it escapes from production sites and storage tanks, when it runs off from fields, when it is discarded, when it is sprayed aerially, and when it is sprayed into water to kill algae. [27] The amount of pesticide that migrates from the intended application area is influenced by the particular chemical's properties: its propensity for binding to soil, its vapor pressure , its water solubility , and its resistance to being broken down over time. [28] Factors in the soil, such as its texture, its ability to retain water, and the amount of organic matter contained in it, also affect the amount of pesticide that will leave the area. [28] Some pesticides contribute to global warming and the depletion of the ozone layer . [29] The environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is largely speculative. PPCPs are substances used by individuals for personal health or cosmetic reasons and the products used by agribusiness to boost growth or health of livestock. PPCPs have been detected in water bodies throughout the world. The effects of these chemicals on humans and the environment are not yet known, but to date there is no scientific evidence that they have an impact on human health. [30]

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There is an ongoing debate about possible taxation of air travel and the inclusion of aviation in an emissions trading scheme, with a view to ensuring that the total external costs of avieffects of ation are taken into account. [44] The environmental impact of roads includes the local highways (public roads ) such as on noise, water pollution , habitat destruction /disturbance and local air quality ; and the wider effects including climate change from vehicle emissions. The design, construction and management of roads , parking and other related facilities as well as the design and regulation of vehicles can change the impacts to varying degrees. The environmental impact of shipping includes greenhouse gas emissions and oil pollution . Carbon dioxide emissions from shipping is currently estimated at 4 to 5% of the global total, and estimated by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) to rise by up to 72% by 2020 if no action is taken. [45] The First Intersessional Meeting of the IMO Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Emissions [46] from Ships took place in Oslo , Norway on 2 [47]

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PROJECT PRESENTED BY M.SAI VINEETH:

PROJECT PRESENTED BY M.SAI VINEETH