Solar system

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Chapters Our Planets Moons Stars Sun Do you know? Asteroids and comets

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Click on the photo to see the details of the planet Mercury Mars Jupiter Saturn Earth Venus Uranus Neptune Pluto

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Click on the photo to see the moons of the planet Mercury Mars Jupiter Saturn Earth Venus Uranus Neptune Pluto


Sun The sun is the main important part of the solar system. It is about 5 million years old. The composition of the sun is hydrogen and helium. The sun is about 1.4 million km in diameter. It has an inner core temperature of 15million 0 c


Sun It has a jet of gas upto a height of hundreds of thousands of km high. Surface temperature about 5,500 0 c. Radiative zone of thickness 380,000km It has some sun spots where it is cool. Tiny particles that escape from the corona gives rise to solar wind. The temperature at the middle of the sunspot is 4,000 0 c.


Mercury Mercury is the nearest planet to the sun. It is the fastest planet in our solar system. Mercury is the 2 nd smallest planet. Speed - : 48 Km/s Time taken to complete the orbit - : 88 days Temperature - : 430 0 c to -170 0 c


Venus Venus is a rocky and second planet from the sun. The rotational period is the longest (243 earth days) It is slightly smaller than the earth. Venus is the hottest planet. Clouds of sulphuric acid are driven around the planet at a speed of 360km/hr. The surface is dry and dusty.


Venus It consists of a semisolid core of iron and nickel about 6,000km in diameter at the center. Venus is the brightest planet in our solar system At some places, the surface is covered with solidified volcanic lava.


Earth The earth is the third planet of the nine planets that orbit the sun. It has a core of temperature of 4,000 0 c. It is also called as blue planet. 70% of the planet is covered with water


Mars Mars is also known as Red planet. It is the fourth planet in the atmosphere. Dust storms are common in this place The surface temperature is -40 0 c. The core diameter is 2,500km


Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet in the atmosphere and the first gas giant. It is the largest and most massive planet. It has a diameter of 11 times the sun. It has a mass about 2.5 times of the sum of mass of 8 other planets.


Saturn Saturn is the 6 th planet from the sun. It is a gas giant and about 1,20,500 km in diameter Saturn has an extremely thin but wide system of rings that is less than 1km thick but extends outwards to about 4,20,000km from the planets surface.


Uranus Uranus is the 3 rd largest planet in the solar system. It has a diameter about 51,000km. The atmosphere contains traces of methane. Uranus clouds are made up of methane. Core temperature about 7,000 0 c


Neptune Neptune is one of the farthest planet in the solar system. The average distance between Neptune and Sun is 4,500 million km. The diameter of the core is about 14,000km The atmosphere of neptune is – 1)Hydrogen (85%) 2)Helium (13%) 3)methane (2%)

Pluto(dwarf planet):

Pluto (dwarf planet) Pluto is also called as dwarf planet. Pluto is 5,900 million km away from the sun. Its orbit is 248 years. Pluto is small and far away. So only little is known about it.

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Mercury has no moons

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Venus has no moons

Earth moon:

Earth moon Luna is a beautiful world that lies some 384,400 kilometers (almost 239,000 miles) from Earth. It is littered with mountains, valleys, old volcano sites, and many bowl-like holes called craters. Luna is a neat world to explore because you can see it without a telescope or binoculars. I know you have seen it. In fact, you may even see it tonight, that is because Luna is our moon.

Earth moon:

Earth moon The distance between earth and moon is 3,84,000 km. As the speed of the light is 3x10 8 km/s , it takes 1.26 seconds for the moon`s beam of light to reach the earth.

Mars – Moons:

Mars – Moons Mars has 2 moons namely -: 1) Phobos 2) Demios Phobos Demios


Phobos Diameter - 22.2km Mass - 1.08x10 16 Orbital period - 7.66 hrs Distance from mars - 9,400km


Deimos Diameter - 12.6 km Mass - 2x10 15 Orbital period - 30.35hrs Distance from Mars - 23,500km

Jupiter - Moons:

Jupiter - Moons Jupiter has 16 moons. Some of the important moons are -: Europa Callisto Ganymede Io


Europa Diameter - 3,138km Distance from planet - 670,900km Mass - 48x10 21 kg


Callisto Diameter - 4,800km Distance from planet - 1,880,000km Mass - 10,759,000x10 16 kg


Ganymede Diameter - 5,262km Distance from the planet - 1,070,000km Mass - 14,819,000x10 16 kg


Io Diameter - 3,642km Distance from the planet - 421,800km Mass - 8,931,900x10 16 kg.

Saturn - Moon:

Saturn - Moon Saturn has 18 moons. Some of the important moons are Enceladus Tethys Dione Mimas


Enceladus Diameter - 498km Distance from the planet - 238,000km


Tethys Diameter - 1050km Distance from the planet - 295,000km


Dione Diameter - 1,118km Distance from the planet - 377,000km


Mimas Diameter - 397km Distance from the sun - 186,000km

Uranus - Moons:

Uranus - Moons Uranus has 18 moons. Miranda Ariel Titania Umbriel Oberon


Miranada Diameter - 472km Average distance - 129,800 km


Ariel Diameter - 1,158km Distance from the planet - 191,200km


Titania Diameter - 1,578km Distance from the planet - 435,900km


Umbriel Diameter - 1,169km Distance from the planet - 166,000km


Oberon Diameter - 1,523km Distance from the planet - 582,600km

Neptune - Moons:

Neptune - Moons Neptune has 6 moons. Some of the important moons are - Triton Proteus


Triton Diameter - 2,705km Distance from the planet - 354,800km


Proteus Diameter - 416km Distance from the planet - 117,600km


Pluto Pluto has three discovered moons. They are - Charon Nix Hydra Charon Nix


Stars Stars are bodies of hot glowing gasses. The surface temperatures of stars are 3,000 0 c to 50,000 0 c The hottest stars are blue in color. The coolest stars are red in color. The energy emitted by a star is generated by nuclear fusion. The core temperature of stars is 100million 0 c to 5 billion 0 c

Life of the stars:

Life of the stars Red super giant Red gaint Supernova Black hole

Red Super Giant:

Red Super Giant Life time - 2 to 5 million years As a massive stars runs out of hydrogen, it begins to expand. Its core heats up while the other layers cool and glow red.

Red Giant:

Red Giant Life time - 2 billion years When the star`s hydrogen runs out, gravity causes its core to shrink and get hotter. The cooler outer layer expands and glows red. The star becomes a red giant.


Supernova Lifetime - glows bright for several months Iron absorbs energy rather than releasing it. In a fraction of a second, the star collapses under its own mass, condensing its core into a dense nucleus. The nucleus reacts to the squeezing by releasing massive shockwaves, exploding star into supernova

Black hole:

Black hole Black holes are 30 – 50 times massive as sun. Gravity is so stronger in black hole. Even light cannot escape The escape velocity of black hole is 299,792km/s


Asteroids A small rocky body orbiting the sun is called an asteroid. Asteroids are also called as planetoids. The first asteroid to be discovered, Ceres, was found in 1801 by Giuseppe Piazzi, and was originally considered to be a new planet.


Comets A celestial object consisting of a nucleus of ice and dust is called a comet. 70% of the earth is covered by water because an ice comet hit the earth million years ago.

Do you know?:

Do you know? The moon titan of Saturn is larger than mercury Mercury , Venus , Mars , Jupiter and Saturn can be seen without Telescope. To practice the weightlessness in the space, Astronauts go deep into a 35-ft pool.

Do you know?:

Do you know? The hubble telescope speeds around the earth at a speed of 8km/sec or 5miles/sec. Hubble detected oxygen in the atmosphere of Europa, one of Jupiter`s moons. Life on the earth started at 3,500 million years ago.

Do you know?:

Do you know? Day by day, the Earth is expanding. The end of the solar system is called as Heliosphere. On a clear night, we can see more than 3,000 stars with a naked eye if there is no pollution in the air.

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