PHARMACOKINETICS WHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO GAIN AN UNDERSTANDING OF HOW TO DESIGN AND ADJUST A DOSAGE REGIMEN?

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PHARMACOKINETICS is the study of the kinetics of drug absorption and disposition. ABSORPTION DISPOSITION DISTRIBUTION ELIMINATION EXCRETION METABOLISM WHAT IS PHARMACOKINETICS?

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How much drug is in the body at any given time How long it takes to reach a constant level of drug in the body during chronic drug administration How long it takes for the body to rid itself of drug once intake of drug has stopped Pharmacokinetics and Dosage Regimens Determine: WHY BE CONCERNED ABOUT PHARMACOKINETICS AND DOSAGE REGIMENS?

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WARNING!! THE STUDY OF PHARMACOKINETICS MAKES SOME PEOPLE ANXIOUS

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Pharmacokinetics Can Be Made FRIENDLY BUT RELAX,

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As a first approximation, the body behaves like a well-stirred beaker, i.e., chemicals are dispersed throughout the container (body) rather quickly. MAJOR CONCEPT #1 CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION (V D ) OF DRUGS (Stir)

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: DEFINITION OF V D Add DRUG to Beaker Calculate Volume Obtain Sample Assay for [Drug] (Stir) [Drug] = Amount Added Volume of Beaker Volume of Beaker = Amount Added [Drug]

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: DEFINITION OF V D Dose Body with DRUG Calculate Volume (This volume is called V D ) Obtain Plasma Sample Assay for [D] P By DEFINITION: V D = A / [D] P (where A is amount of drug in body and [D] P is concentration of drug in plasma)

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: DEFINITION OF V D WARNING: V D is a calculated value that should not be taken literally as representing some real volume!!!!!! V D is: a calculated value, a reproducible value, a clinically useful value. V D is not a real volume with an independent existence. In this regard, the word “volume” is used in a metaphorical sense.

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: INTRODUCTION TO V D By DEFINITION: V D = A/ [D] P Rearranging: A = V D x [D] P Substituting [D] P(target) for [D] P : A target = V D x [D] P(target) Suppose you want a certain desirable [D] p , call it [D] P(target) Where A target is the amount of drug in body required to achieve a given [D] P(target)

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: INTRODUCTION TO V D If patient has no drug in body to begin with, then can administer an amount (called “Loading Dose”) to achieve a given A target and [D] P(target) Since loading dose (LD) must provide A target amount of drug in body, and since not all of an administered dose may be absorbed: LD x B = A target or LD = A target /B or ( V D x [D] P(target) )/B Where B is “Bioavailability” ,i.e., fraction (ranging from 0 to 1) of administered dose absorbed into body

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: INTRODUCTION TO V D B LD = V D x [D] P(target) (KEY EQUATION #1)

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: INTRODUCTION TO V D V D and [D] P(target) and B are THE determinants of loading dose (LD)!! In other words, the amount of drug that must be given to achieve rapidly a target concentration of drug in the plasma is solely determined by V D , B and [D] P(target) . LD = ( V D x [D] P(target) )/B

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: DETERMINANTS OF V D Distribution into Body Compartments Restriction of Drug to Limited Areas of Body Free Assess of Drug to Many Areas of Body vs Large V D Small V D

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: DETERMINANTS OF V D Tissue Binding [D] P V D A [D] P =

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: DETERMINANTS OF V D Plasma Protein Binding [D] P V D [D] P = A

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: DETERMINANTS OF V D Distribution into Fat [D] P V D [D] P = A

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: OBTAINING V D Time (hrs) [D] P 0 is [D] P at time 0 and is obtained by extrapolation Decrease in [D] P due to elimination V D is usually easy to obtain! 1. Give bolus of drug. 2. Measure plasma levels over time. 3. Extrapolate to find plasma level at time 0. V D = Amount in body at time 0/[D] p 0 = Dose IV /[D] P 0 Log [D] P

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: OBTAINING V D One- versus Two-Compartment Behavior Initial Restriction of Drug to Limited Areas of Body Slow Equilibration of Drug to Other Areas of Body (Time)

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: OBTAINING V D One- versus Two-Compartment Behavior Time (hrs) y-axis is V D V D(initial) V D(final) One Two 1-Compartment: V D(final) reached within minutes 2-Compartment: V D(final) reached only after noticeable delay

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Two-Compartment Behavior Time (hrs) V D(initial) = V D( ) = Amount in body at time 0/[D] p 0 = Dose IV /[D] P 0 Body Slowly Equilibrating Tissues Plasma V D(initial) is easy to obtain for 2- compartment behavior! [D] P 0 is [D] P at time 0 and is obtained by extrapolation Log [D] P or Log Amount CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: OBTAINING V D

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Two-Compartment Behavior Time (hrs) Body Slowly Equilibrating Tissues Plasma V D( final) = V D( ) = Amount in body at time t after distribution /[D] P time t after distribution V D( final) is difficult to obtain for 2-compartment behavior! Because of elimination, amount in body at time t after distribution Dose IV Log [D] P or Log Amount CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: OBTAINING V D

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: OBTAINING V D Two-Compartment Behavior NOTE THAT: Obtaining V D( ) requires advanced training in pharmacokinetics V D( ) and V D( ) have different uses (next slide) May run across another term called V D( ss) V D( ss) is somewhat less than V D( ) For practical purposes V D( ss) and V D( ) can be interchanged

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USEFUL FOR CALCULATING LOADING DOSE CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: IMPORTANCE OF V D

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1 2 B LD = V ? x [D] P(target) B LD = Whether you use V D( ) and V D( ) depends on what trade-offs you are willing to make! Next slide Does the drug exhibit 1- or 2- compartment behavior? V D x [D] P(target) (KEY EQUATION #1) CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: IMPORTANCE OF V D

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LD using V D(ß) , followed by constant rate infusion LD using V D( ) , followed by constant rate infusion [Lidocaine] P ( g/ml) Time (minutes) (example of 2-compartment drug; lidocaine) Constant rate infusion without LD [D] P(target) LD using V D( ) without constant rate infusion CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: IMPORTANCE OF V D

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Window of potentially toxic levels Window of suboptimal levels [Lidocaine] P ( g/ml) Time (minutes) (example of 2-compartment drug; lidocaine) Window suboptimal levels [D] P(target) Suboptimal levels CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: IMPORTANCE OF V D

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CONCEPT OF VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS: EXAMPLE OF USING V D TO CALCULATE LD Pharmacokinetic Parameters forDigoxin: [D] P(target) = 1.5 µg/L V D = 580 L Oral Bioavailability = 0.7 LD = ( V D x [D] P(target) )/B Oral LD = ( 580 L x 1.5 µg/L) /0.7 Oral LD = 1243 µg ~ 1.2mg Calculation of Oral LD For Digoxin:

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DRUG MAJOR CONCEPT #2 CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE (Cl) Think of drug clearance as removal of drug from body by body’s garbage disposal systems!

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE (Cl): DEFINITION OF Cl By Definition: Cl = Rate of Drug Elimination [D] P Units of Cl: Amount/Time Amount/Volume Volume Time =

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: DEFINITION OF Cl Example: Cl = 10 mg/hr 4 mg/L = 2.5 L/hr Rate of Drug Elimination = 10 mg/hr [D] P = 4 mg/L

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl Cl is usually constant over a wide range of [D] P Cl [D] P This is a consequence of the fact that most drugs are eliminated from body by 1st order kinetics (dA/dt = -k•A).

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl Cl is a major determinant of [D] P at STEADY STATE ([D] P SS ) INPUT OUTPUT STEADY STATE LEVEL (Kidney & Liver)

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl [D] P SS Toxic Threshold Therapeutic Threshold Time (hrs) [D] P (mg/L) (Therapeutic Window) Single Dose Multiple Doses [D] P SS = [D] P at steady state

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl By Definition: Steady state is said to exist when: Rate of Drug Administration (R 0 ) = Rate of Drug Elimination (Input = Output) How does Cl influence [D] P SS ?

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl By definition of Cl: Cl = Rate of Drug Elimination [D] P Rearranging Eq A: Cl Rate of Drug Elimination [D] P = (Eq A) (Eq B)

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl Applying Eq B to Steady State: Cl Rate of Drug Elimination at Steady State [D] P SS = (Eq C) By definition of steady state: R 0 = Rate of Drug Elimination at Steady State (Eq D)

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Substituting Eq D into Eq C: Cl [D] P SS = R 0 (Eq E) CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl

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Additional definitions: Maintenance Dose (MD) = Amount of Drug Taken at Regular Intervals Dosing Interval (DI) = Time Between MDs Bioavailability (B) = Fraction of Administered Dose that is Absorbed into Systemic Circulation CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl

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Rate of Drug Administration (R 0 ) = Amount of Drug Delivered to the Systemic Circulation Time Substituting Definitions of B, MD, and DI: Recognizing that: DI B x MD (Eq F) R 0 = CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl

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Substituting Eq F into Eq E: DI x Cl B x MD [D] P SS = (KEY EQUATION #2) CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl

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Key Equation #2 reveals that [D] P SS depends not on the absolute values of MD and DI, but on their ratio! DI x Cl B x MD [D] P SS = CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl [D] P (mg/L) Time (hrs) 672 mg bolus every 24 hr Constant rate infusion of 672 mg per 24 hr [D] P SS Toxic 224 mg bolus every 8 hr Therapuetic [D] P SS is same for all three regimens

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Since [D] P SS is a major determinant of a) Therapeutic Response b) Toxicity Cl is important!! CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl

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Rearranging Key Equation #2: B [D] P SS x Cl MD/DI = (Eq G) CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl Since our goal is to provide[D] P(target) , we let: [D] P SS = [D] P(target) (Eq H)

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Substituting Eq H into Eq G: B [D] P(target) x Cl MD/DI = (Key Equation #3) CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: INTRODUCTION TO Cl

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: DETERMINANTS of Cl Most drugs are cleared by the kidneys and/or liver, therefore: Rate of Elimination = Rate of Renal Elimination + Rate of Hepatic Elimination (Law of conservation of mass!)

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: DETERMINANTS of Cl Rate of Elimination/ [D] P = Rate of Renal Elimination/ [D] P + Rate of Hepatic Elimination/ [D] P (Divide each term by [D] P )

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: DETERMINANTS of Cl Rate of Elimination/ [D] P = Rate of Renal Elimination/ [D] P + Rate of Hepatic Elimination/ [D] P Cl Cl R Cl H (By definition of Cl, Cl R & Cl H )

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: DETERMINANTS of Cl Cl = Cl R + Cl H DUE TO: Glomerular filtration of drugs not bound to plasma proteins Secretion into renal tubules of acidic and basic drugs by transport systems in proximal tubule

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: DETERMINANTS of Cl Cl = Cl R + Cl H REDUCED BY: Reabsorption of lipophilic drugs from the renal tubule Renal diseases that decrease glomerular filtration and tubular secretion of drug Competition between drugs for secretion by transport systems in the proximal tubule

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: DETERMINANTS of Cl Cl = Cl R + Cl H DUE TO: Metabolism of drugs by liver enzymes Secretion of drugs into bile by transport systems in the hepatocytes

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: DETERMINANTS of Cl Cl = Cl R + Cl H REDUCED BY: Ionization of drugs which limits penetration of drug into hepatocytes Competition between drugs for metabolism and/or transport into bile Liver disease Genetic variation in drug metabolizing enzymes

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: DETERMINANTS of Cl Cl = Cl R + Cl H INCREASED BY: Induction of liver enzymes by same drug, other drugs and/or environmental chemicals Genetic variation in drug metabolizing enzymes

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: OBTAINING Cl There are many ways to obtain Cl: Give IV infusion of drug to steady state, measure plasma levels and divide [D] P SS by rate of infusion. Cl = Rate of Infusion/[D] P SS Give IV bolus of drug, measure plasma levels over time, measure area under curve (AUC) and divide bolus dose by AUC. Cl = Dose/AUC (Don’t worry about derivation!)

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: OBTAINING Cl There are many ways to obtain Cl: Give IV bolus of drug, measure plasma levels over time, fit data to appropriate equation, obtain parameters from fit and calculate Cl: [D] P t = [D] P 0 •e -kt [D] P t = A•e - t + B•e - t 1-compartment behavior 2-compartment behavior Cl = Dose/([D] P 0 /k) Cl = Dose/(A/ + B/) (Empirical) (Don’t worry about derivation!)

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USEFUL FOR CALCULATING RATE OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION CONCEPT OF : IMPORTANCE OF Cl

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Note that Key Equation #3 tells us the rate of drug administration (MD/DI). B [D] P(target) x Cl MD/DI = CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: IMPORTANCE of Cl We must consult other equations to determine most appropriate DI and therefore MD.

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DEFINITION Therapeutic Window (TW) = highest [D] P that is safe lowest [D] P that is therapeutically effective CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: IMPORTANCE of Cl

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DEFINITION Maximum Dosing Interval (DI max ): The longest dosing interval that still provides non-toxic peak plasma levels of drug while providing therapeutically effective trough plasma levels of drug. CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: IMPORTANCE of Cl

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DEFINITION Elimination t 1/2 : . Time required for drug elimination processes to decrease the amount of drug in the body by 50%. (Much more on t 1/2 later!) CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: IMPORTANCE of Cl

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DI max is determined by interplay between therapeutic window (TW) and t 1/2 . DI max = 1.44 x t 1/2 x ln (TW) If calculated DI max is ~24 hrs, give all of daily dose once daily If calculated DI max is too short, give daily dose by constant rate infusion over 24 hrs If DI max is some fraction of the day, give daily dose in divide doses (Key Equation #4) (Don’t worry about derivation!) CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: IMPORTANCE of Cl

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Pharmacokinetic Parameters forDigoxin: [D] P(target) = 1.5 µg/L Cl = 6.6 L/hr Oral Bioavailability = 0.7 Oral MD/DI = ([D] P(target) x Cl)/B Oral MD/DI = (1.5 µg/L x 6.6 L/hr) /0.7 Oral MD/DI = 14.1 µg/hr Calculation of Oral MD/DI For Digoxin: CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: EXAMPLE OF CALCULATING DOSAGE REGIMEN

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Pharmacokinetic Parameters for Digoxin: [D] P(effect) > 0.8 µg/L [D] P(toxic) > 2.5 µg/L t 1/2 = 39 hrs Calculation of DI max For Digoxin: CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: EXAMPLE OF CALCULATING DOSAGE REGIMEN DI max = 1.44 x t 1/2 x ln (TW) DI max = 1.44 x 39 hrs x ln (2.5/0.8) DI max = 64 hrs

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CONCEPT OF DRUG CLEARANCE: EXAMPLE OF CALCULATING DOSAGE REGIMEN For convenience use DI of 24 hrs (< 64 hrs) Oral MD/DI = 14.1 µg/hr Oral MD/24 hrs = 14.1 µg/hr Oral MD = 14.1 µg/hr x 24 hrs = 338.4 µg = 0.34 mg For convenience, round-off to nearest available dosage size, in this case 0.375 mg Administer one 0.375 mg tablet every day

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MAJOR CONCEPT #3 CONCEPT OF ELIMINATION HALF-LIFE (t 1/2 )

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CONCEPT OF ELIMINATION HALF-LIFE (t 1/2 ): DEFINITION of t 1/2 Time required for drug elimination processes to decrease the amount of drug in the body by 50%.

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CONCEPT OF ELIMINATION HALF-LIFE: INTRODUCTION TO t 1/2 By definition: Rearranging Eq I: Cl = Rate of Drug Elimination [D] P (Eq I) Rate of Drug Elimination (i.e., -dA/dt) = Cl x [D] P (Eq J) Substituting in Eq J the term A/V D for [D] P : -dA/dt = Cl x A/V D (Eq K)

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CONCEPT OF ELIMINATION HALF-LIFE: INTRODUCTION TO t 1/2 -dA/dt = Cl x A/V D (Eq K) Rearranging Eq K: -dA/A = (Cl /V D ) x dt (Eq L) Taking definite integral of Eq L over appropriate limits: -dA/A = (Cl /V D ) x dt A initial 1/2A initial 0 t 1/2 (Eq M)

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CONCEPT OF ELIMINATION HALF-LIFE: INTRODUCTION TO t 1/2 -dA/A = (Cl /V D ) x dt A initial 1/2A initial 0 t 1/2 (Eq M) t 1/2 = 0.693 x V D Cl (KEY EQUATION #5)

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CONCEPT OF ELIMINATION HALF-LIFE: DETERMINANTS OF t 1/2 t 1/2 = 0.693 x V D Cl (KEY EQUATION # 5) Note that if: Cl increases, t 1/2 decreases Cl decreases, t 1/2 increases V D increases, t 1/2 increases V D decreases, t 1/2 decreases

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CONCEPT OF ELIMINATION HALF-LIFE : OBTAINING t 1/2 There are many ways to obtain t 1/2 : Calculate from V D and Cl using key equation #5

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CONCEPT OF ELIMINATION HALF-LIFE: OBTAINING of t 1/2 t 1/2 = 0.693 x V D Cl Note that as drug distributes, V D increases from V D() to V D() . Consequently, elimination t 1/2 is rapidly changing (increasing) until distribution is complete. But which V D do I use if 2-compartment behavior??

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CONCEPT OF ELIMINATION HALF-LIFE: OBTAINING t 1/2 But which V D do I use if 2-compartment behavior?? For 2-compartment behavior, use V D() to calculate elimination t 1/2 since after distribution, this value is stable and, therefore, meaningful!

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There are many ways to obtain t 1/2 : Give IV bolus of drug, measure plasma levels over time, fit data to appropriate equation, obtain parameters from fit and calculate t 1/2 : [D] P t = [D] P 0 •e -kt [D] P t = A•e - t + B•e - t 1-compartment behavior 2-compartment behavior t 1/2 = 0.693 /k t 1/2 = 0.693 / (Empirical) (Don’t worry about derivation!) CONCEPT OF ELIMINATION HALF-LIFE: OBTAINING t 1/2

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CONCEPT OF ELIMINATION HALF-LIFE: IMPORTANCE of t 1/2 Elimination t 1/2 determines the time required for [D] P to achieve [D] P SS . Elimination t 1/2 is a major determinant of variations in [D] P around [D] P SS , i.e., peak-to-trough ratios. Elimination t 1/2 may place major constraints on the dosage regimen. Elimination t 1/2 determines how much time is required for drug to be eliminated from body.

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MAJOR CONCEPT #4 CONCEPT OF TIME TO STEADY STATE (t SS )

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CONCEPT OF t SS : DEFINITION of t SS t SS is the time required to reach [D] P SS if the dosing regimen only involves the repeated administration of drug using a specific MD/DI ratio. [D] P Time (hrs)

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CONCEPT OF t SS : INTRODUCTION TO t SS Note that: Theoretically, t ss is infinity and [D] P SS is never reached!! However, the time required to achieve any specified fraction of [D] P SS can be calculated.

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CONCEPT OF t SS : DETERMINANTS of t SS Note that: For a drug with 1-compartment behavior, the time required to reach any specified fraction of [D] P SS is a function only of elimination t 1/2 . For a drug with 2-compartment behavior, the time required to reach any specified fraction of [D] P SS is a function of elimination t 1/2 ; however, the half-life of the distribution process also contributes and complicates the situation.

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CONCEPT OF t SS : DETERMINANTS of t SS If 1-compartment behavior, four elimination half-lives: Provide 94% of [D] P SS when treatment started Reduce [D] P to 6% of [D] P SS when treatment stopped

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CONCEPT OF t SS : DETERMINANTS of t SS If 2-compartment behavior, four elimination half-lives: Provide > or = 94% of [D] P SS when treatment started Reduce [D] P to < or = 6% of [D] P SS when treatment stopped

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CONCEPT OF t SS : DETERMINANTS of t SS BY GENERAL CONSENSUS For both 1- and 2-Compartment Behavior: t SS = 4 x t 1/2

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Where did all this come from? CONCEPT OF t SS : DETERMINANTS of t SS The answer to this question requires requires advanced training in pharmacokinetics! (Just take it on faith!)

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CONCEPT OF t SS : IMPORTANCE OF t SS t SS Is The Time Required To Reach: an initial [D] P SS when treatment is begun a new [D] P SS when the dosage regimen is altered [D] P SS = 0 when treatment is stopped

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Calculation of t SS for Digoxin: CONCEPT OF t SS : EXAMPLE OF CALCULATIONS INVOLVING t SS Pharmacokinetic Parameters for Digoxin: t 1/2 = 39 hrs t SS = 4 x t 1/2 t SS = 4 x 39 hrs = 156 hrs = 6.5 days!! This is why a loading dose of digioxin is often prescribed.

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PK in a NUTSHELL

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Designing a Dosage Regimen

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Designing a Dosage Regimen Population versus Individual Values for PK Parameters Value of PK Parameter # of People Population values represent average values rather than the value for YOUR patient. Individual values represent the values in YOUR patient, but they have to be determined in YOUR patient. Widely Available PK Values Rarely Available PK Values

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Designing a Dosage Regimen Population versus Individual Values for PK Parameters If available, of course use individual values for PK parameters. You will nearly always have to settle for population values for PK parameters.

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Designing a Dosage Regimen Step #1: Decide whether LD is required and, if so, calculate LD.

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Designing a Dosage Regimen Can you afford to wait 4t 1/2 s to obtain [D] P SS ? Yes No Do not give LD. Calculate LD. Next slide

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Calculating Loading Dose 1 2 B LD = V ? x [D] P(target) B LD = Use V D( ) if major concern is toxicity, use V D( ) if major concern is therapeutic response. Does the drug exhibit 1- or 2- compartment behavior? V D x [D] P(target) (Key Equation #1)

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Designing a Dosage Regimen Step #2: Determine MD/DI Ratio.

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Calculating MD/DI Ratio [D] P SS x DI x Cl B B [D] P(target) x Cl MD/DI = (Key Equation #3)

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Designing a Dosage Regimen Step #3: Determine DI.

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DI max is determined by interplay between therapeutic window (TW) and t 1/2 . DI max = 1.44 x t 1/2 x ln (TW) Calculating a Dosing Interval (Key Equation #4) If calculated DI max is ~24 hrs, give all of daily dose once daily If calculated DI max is too short, give daily dose by constant rate infusion over 24 hrs If DI max is some fraction of the day, give daily dose in divide doses

Slide99:

Designing a Dosage Regimen Capacity-Limited Metabolism (Also called “Zero Order Kinetics”) An infrequent, but important phenomenon Clearance is not constant with respect to [D] P because metabolizing enzymes are saturated at “therapeutic concentrations” Rate of drug elimination is fixed and cannot use clearance to calculate dosage regimen For such drugs, daily dose should not exceed fixed rate of elimination

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Designing a Dosage Regimen Ethanol is Eliminated by “Zero Order Kinetics” For average adult, rate of metabolism is 10 g/hr 45 ml of whiskey contains 14 g of ethanol If drink 45 ml of whiskey every hr, will accumulate 4 g ethanol/hr and develop coma in 48 hr However, can drink 30 ml whiskey (9 g ethanol) every hr with impunity

Slide101:

Adjusting a Dosage Regimen A dosage regimen may need to be adjusted if plasma clearance changes, for instance because of disease.

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Adjusting a Dosage Regimen If drug is eliminated mostly by liver, no adjustment required. Adjusting Dosage Regimens in Patients with Renal Disease If drug is eliminated mostly by kidney, either: Re-evaluate need for drug and discontinue if possible Reduce dose Increase dosing interval Switch to drug eliminated mostly by liver

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Adjusting a Dosage Regimen If drug is eliminated mostly by kidney, no adjustment required. Adjusting Dosage Regimens in Patients with Liver Disease If drug is eliminated mostly by liver, either: Re-evaluate need for drug and discontinue if possible Reduce dose Increase dosing interval Switch to drug eliminated mostly by kidney

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HOW DO I DESIGN AND ADJUST A DOSAGE REGIMEN? Now you know!!

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The End

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