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DRUG INFORMATION: It is current ,critically examined , relevant data about drugs and drug use in a given patient or situation. a)Current information uses the most recent ,up-to-date sources possible. b)Critically examined information should meet the following criteria: 1)More than one source should be used when appropriate. 2)The extent of agreement of sources should be determined: if sources do not agree ,good judgement should be used. 3)The plausibility of information ,based on clinical circumstances,should be determined. c)Relevant information must be presented in a manner that applies directly to the circumstances under considerations ex;patient parameters,therapeutic objectives ,alternative approaches.

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DRUG PROFILE : An outline or summary of the characteristics of a drug or drug family, listing dosage types, pregnancy category, prescription or over-the-counter forms, generics if available , contraindications and classifications if covered by controlled-substance laws.


DRUG INFORMATION PROFILE OF DRUGS GENERIC NAME: LEVOFLOXACIN BRAND NAME(S): Levaquin DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Levofloxacin is an antibiotic for treating bacterial infections. Levofloxacin is an antibiotic that stops multiplication of bacteria by preventing the reproduction and repair of their genetic material, DNA. It is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones , a class that includes ciprofloxacin ( Cipro ), norfloxacin ( Noroxin ), ofloxacin ( Floxin ), trovafloxacin ( Trovan ), and lomefloxacin ( Maxaquin ). The FDA approved levofloxacin in December 1996.

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GENERIC AVAILABLE: No PRESCRIPTION: Yes PREPARATIONS: Tablets: 250, 500, and 750 mg; Oral solution: 25 mg/mL; Injection: 5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml STORAGE: Levofloxacin should be stored between 15-30 C (59-86 F) PRESCRIBED FOR: Levofloxacin is used to treat infections of the sinuses , skin, lungs, ears, airways, bones, and joints caused by susceptible bacteria. Levofloxacin also is frequently used to treat urinary infections , including those resistant to other antibiotics, as well as prostatitis (infection of the prostate). Levofloxacin is effective in treating infectious diarrhea caused by E. coli , Campylobacter jejuni , and Shigella bacteria. Levofloxacin also can be used to treat various obstetric infections, including mastitis (infection of the breast).

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DOSING: The usual dose is 250-750 mg given once daily for 5-60 days depending on the type of infection. It is important to take oral formulations at least 2 hours before or 2 hours after any antacid or mineral supplement containing iron, calcium, zinc, or magnesium since these bind levofloxacin and prevent its absorption into the body . DRUG INTERACTIONS: Iron, calcium, zinc, or magnesium can attach to levofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones and prevent their absorption from the intestine into the blood. Therefore, products (for example, antacids) that contain iron, calcium, zinc or magnesium should be taken at least 2 hours before or 2 hours after levofloxacin. Other drugs that contain these minerals and can similarly interact with levofloxacin include sucralfate (Carafate) and didanosine ( Videx , Videx EC). Taking nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with levofloxacin may increase the risk of CNS stimulation, resulting in over-excitation .

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PREGNANCY: Levofloxacin is not recommended for use in pregnant women since levofloxacin causes joint and bone deformities in juvenile animals of several species. NURSING MOTHERS: Levofloxacin is not recommended for use in lactating women because of the likelihood that, like other fluoroquinolones , levofloxacin is excreted in breast-milk . SIDE EFFECTS: The most frequently reported side events are nausea or vomiting, diarrhea , headache , and constipation . Less common side effects include difficulty sleeping, dizziness, abdominal pain , rash , abdominal gas, and itching .

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Patients taking levofloxacin can develop sensitivity of the skin to direct sunlight ( photosensitivity ) and should avoid exposure to sunlight or use sunblock. Levofloxacin should be used with caution in patients with central nervous system diseases such as seizures , because rare seizures have been reported in patients receiving levofloxacin. Levofloxacin should be avoided in children and adolescents less than 18 years of age, as safe use in these patients has not been established

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GENERIC NAME: ibuprofen BRAND NAME: Advil, Children's Advil/Motrin, Medipren , Motrin, Nuprin , PediaCare Fever etc . DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Ibuprofen belongs to a class of drugs called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Other members of this class include aspirin, naproxen (Aleve), indomethacin (Indocin), nabumetone (Relafen) and several others. These drugs are used for the management of mild to moderate pain, fever , and inflammation. Pain, fever, and inflammation are promoted by the release in the body of chemicals called prostaglandins. Ibuprofen blocks the enzyme that makes prostaglandins (cyclooxygenase), resulting in lower levels of prostaglandins. As a consequence, inflammation, pain and fever are reduced. The FDA approved ibuprofen in 1974.

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PRESCRIPTION: Yes GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes PREPARATIONS : Tablets of 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg; Chewable tablets of 50 and 100 mg; Capsules of 200 mg; Suspension of 100 mg/2.5 ml and 100 mg/5 ml; Oral drops of 40 mg/ml . STORAGE: Ibuprofen should be stored at room temperature, between 15-30°C (59-86°F). PRESCRIBED FOR: Ibuprofen is used for the treatment of mild to moderate pain, inflammation and fever caused by many and diverse diseases.

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DOSING: For minor aches, mild to moderate pain,and fever, the usual adult dose is 200 or 400 mg every 4 to 6 hours. Arthritis is treated with 300 to 800 mg 3 or 4 times daily. Ibuprofen should be taken with meals to prevent stomach upset

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DRUG INTERACTIONS: Ibuprofen may increase the blood levels of lithium ( Eskalith ) by reducing the excretion of lithium by the kidneys. Increased levels of lithium may lead to lithium toxicity . Ibuprofen may reduce the blood pressure-lowering effects of drugs that are given to reduce blood pressure. This may occur because prostaglandins play a role in the regulation of blood pressure. When ibuprofen is used in combination with aminoglycosides [for example, gentamicin ( Garamycin )] the blood levels of the aminoglycoside may increase, presumably because the elimination of aminoglycosides from the body is reduced.

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PREGNANCY: There are no adequate studies of ibuprofen in pregnant women . Therefore, ibuprofen is not recommended during pregnancy. Ibuprofen should be avoided in late pregnancy due to the risk of premature closure of the ductus arteriosus in the fetal heart.. NURSING MOTHERS: Ibuprofen is not excreted in breast milk. Use of ibuprofen while breastfeeding , poses little risk to the infant.

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SIDE EFFECTS: The most common side effects from ibuprofen are rash , ringing in the ears , headaches , dizziness, drowsiness, abdominal pain , nausea , diarrhea , constipation and heartburn . NSAIDs reduce the ability of blood to clot and therefore increase bleeding after an injury. Ibuprofen may cause ulceration of the stomach or intestine, and the ulcers may bleed . The impairment is most likely to occur in patients who already have impaired function of the kidney or congestive heart failure , and use of NSAIDs in these patients should be cautious . People who are allergic to other NSAIDs, including aspirin , should not use ibuprofen. Individuals with asthma are more likely to experience allergic reactions to ibuprofen and other NSAIDs


DRUG INFORMATION RESOURCES Primary Resources Secondary Resources Tertiary Resources Internet Resources


PRIMARY SOURCES They are the research studies published in the biomedical journals. It is the most current information about drugs . It is not easy job to use journals to answer a drug related question because of its huge growing number(>20000 biomedical journals available) Primary resources provide the broad base for development of the rest the professional literature. It contains original reports of scientific studies which the knowledge of drugs and therapeutics built . Current of the information sources ;and periodical journals are its most common format .


SECONDARY SOURCES They are indexes and abstracts for primary resources. They are valuable tools for quick and selective screening for primary resources. They provide the user with concise tools for gaining access to the primary literatures. Any single indexing or abstracting service can not cover all published articles beside the lag time are the limitations to use secondary.


TERTIARY SOURCES Tertiary resources include textbooks ;monographs; Compendia; Handbooks; and published symposia . They represent the condensation of basic facts originally published in the primary literature. COMPENDIA: vast array of information about many drug such as the physician’s desk reference . FULL DATA TEXT BASE : Including the internet MICROMEDEX and LEXI REVIEW ARTICLES : Summarize a particular topic contain more current information TEXT BOOKS: On various drug or disease topics


INTERNET SOURCES Medscape: www.medscape.com National Guideline Clearinghouse: ( www.guideline.gov ) Emedicine Drkoop : www.drkoop.com Healthfinder : www.healthfinder.gov CDC : www.cdc.gov FDA : www.fda.gov The Natural Pharmacist : www.tnp.com The Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database NIH : www.nih.gov Clinical trials Medlineplus : www.nlm.nih.gov Webmd : www.webmd.gov http://www.pharmweb.net


DATBASES AVAILABLE DRUGDEX :- main drug information database. DISEASEDEX :- disease states. IDENTIDEX :- drug identification by impact code. IDENTIDEX :- drug identification by imprint code. POISINDEX :- poisoning and toxicology. MARTINDALE’S :- Foreign drug.

Alternate sources of Drug information:

Alternate sources of Drug information Electronic bulletin boards (EBBS ) Lest Servers; and USNET news Local and national professional organization Pharmaceutical manufactures. Drug information and poison control center’s.


REFERENCES MODERN PHARMACEUTICS BY GILBERT S.BANKER AND CHRISTOPHER T.RHODES-pg . no:762-780. COMPREHENSIVE PHARMACY REVIEW 4 th edition. Léon shargel , A lan H . Mutnick , Paul F.Souney , Larry N. Swanson- pg . no:406-410. http :// www.medicinenet.com/levofloxacin/article.htm http:// www.medicinenet.com/ibuprofen/article.htm WICKIPEDIA.NET

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