INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

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INDUSTRIAL SAFETY :

INDUSTRIAL SAFETY Presented by Jeet singh Department of pharmaceutics KLE University, JNMC Campus Belgaum, Karnataka

contents:

contents Introduction Types of hazards Conclusion References

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Introduction Industrial hazards: It can be defined as any condition produced by industries that may cause injury or death to personal or loss of product or property. Types of hazards Physical Chemical Biological Mechanical Electrical Pollution

Physical hazards:

Physical hazards It may be due to Heat & cold Noise Radiation Fire & explosion hazards

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Noise have two type effects Auditory Non auditory effects Preventive measures At source: Source of noise can be enclosed with an insulation material or concrete wall. Proper maintenance of machinery By distance Personal protection against noise.

Equipment noise sources ,level & potential control solutions:

Equipment noise sources ,level & potential control solutions Equipment Sound level in dBA at 3 feet Possible noise control treatments Air coolers 87-94 Aerodynamic fun blades, ↓ revolutions/min ↑ pitch,↓ pressure drop Compressors 90-120 Install mufflers on intake,& exhaust, enclosure the machine with casing, vibration isolation & lagging of piping system Electric motors 90-110 Acoustically lined fun covers, enclosure 7 motor mutes

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Heater & furnaces 95-110 Acoustic plenums, intake mufflers, lined & damped ducts Valves <80-108 Avoid sonic velocities, limit pressure drop & mass flow, replace with special low noise valves Piping 9-105 Inline silencers, vibration isolation Equipment noise sources ,level & potential control solutions

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Radiation Natural Man made Cosmic rays Medical /dental x-rays isotopes Environmental (radioactive elements e.g. uranium) Occupational exposure Internal (potassium,) Nuclear radioactive fallout Approx 0.1 rad/yr Miscellaneous Use of radio active substances by different industries Radiation are divided into two groups

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Effect of hazards Somatic Genetic Preventive measures Radiation source should be housed in a building that shields any surrounding area. Radiation badges should be worn. Periodical medical examination. Proper use of lead shields & lead rubber aprons .

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Fire & explosion hazards Causes Smoking in the factory Defective heating equipment, electrical equipment & wiring. Explosive gas leakage. Inadequate protection of electric motors Sparking of electric wires & equipment Protection & prevention Types of fire

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The fires are divided into Class A fires Class B fires Class C fires

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Fire & explosion hazards Preventive measures Prohibition of smoking in manufacturing areas. Oxygen present in the inflammable atmosphere may be ↓by dilution with gases such as nitrogen, co 2 ,steam or combination of these. Hazardous operation should be isolated Eliminating the ignition sources Using fire resistant material in construction Suitable emergency exits Adequate venting

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Preventive measures Automatic sprinklers Equipment should design to meet the specifications & code of recognized authorities, such as ISA, API &ASME The design & construction of pressure vessels & storage tanks should follow API & ASME codes. Inspection

2. Chemical hazards:

2. Chemical hazards They act in 3 ways: Local action Inhalation Ingestion Living tissue may be destroyed by chemical reactions such as Dehydration Digestion Oxidation

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Source , effect & precautions of chemical hazards Type/ source of chemical contaminant Effect/ organ affected Precautions to be taken Acridines, phenothizines Dermatitis Cleanliness, removal of people from the areas as soon as first sign of skin reaction is observed. Solvents like chloroform, benzene Handle with care vegetable drugs like capsicum & podophyllum Dust evolves, affects eye Goggles are to be worn Long term use of filter without cleaning Dust explosion Regular cleaning

Source, effect & precautions of chemical hazards:

Source, effect & precautions of chemical hazards Improper use of cleaning agents contamination Follow established cleaning procedures Working with radio pharmaceuticals Hazards due to emitted radiation Wearing lead coat, maintaining pressure of working area slightly less than atmospheric pressure Underground tanks Difficulty in monitoring interior & exterior Minimal use of underground tanks

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES Filtration Internal separators Electrostatic precipitators Lead poisoning Preventive measures Tolerance levels for toxic chemicals set by federal regulations have to be followed. Strict observation of operations of all safety regulations

3. Biological hazards:

3. Biological hazards Disease due to biological hazards Brucellosis Byssinosis Bagassosis Loco motor disorder Preventive measures Periodic health check up Personal protection The manufacturer should also provide First aid facilities Initial examination Facility for vaccination Routine sanitation programme

4. Mechanical hazards:

4. Mechanical hazards Accidents usually take place by the combination of unsafe condition & carelessness. Most of industrial accidents are due to Faulty inspection Inability of employee Poor discipline Lack of concentration Unsafe practice Mental & physical unfitness for job Faulty equipment or improper working condition Improper training regarding the safety aspects

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In order to prevent mechanical accidents factories act lay 4 down certain requirements For cranes End buffers Indicating lamps Signals Proof loading upto20 tons 25% in excess 20 to 50 tons 5 tons in excess above 50 tons 10% in excess Dock regulation Lifting regulations Crane accidents

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Preventive measures Building planning Safe material handling Personal protective devices

5. Electrical hazards:

5. Electrical hazards Shocks Sparking Fire Preventive measures Proper maintenance of wiring & equipment High voltage equipment should be properly enclosed Good house keeping Water should not be used for dousing electric fire Worker should avoid working in electric circuits or equipment in wet clothing or shoes.

6. Pollution hazards:

6. Pollution hazards Types Air pollution Water pollution Thermal pollution Sound pollution a. Air pollution Sources Automobiles Industries Domestic

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Preventive measures Those suitable for removing particulate matter Ventilation Exhaust ventilation Plenum ventilation Air purifying equipment Those associated with removing gaseous pollutants Water pollution Types of water pollutants Physical Chemical Physiological biological

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Problems of water pollution Preventive measure Control of water pollution Physical treatment Storage Filtration Chemical treatment Biological treatment Treatment of industrial waste Primary treatment Secondary treatment Tertiary treatment Thermal pollution

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Thermal pollution Effects Damage to aquatic environment Reduction in assimilative capacity of organic waste Various off stream cooling systems Wet cooling towers Dry cooling towers Cooling ponds Spray ponds

Recommendations & suggestions:

Recommendations & suggestions Proper treatment & disposal methods for effluents should be adopted An awareness program Measures for increase efficiency of the water use

Classification of signs according to use -- (1) Danger signs. :

Classification of signs according to use -- (1) Danger signs. The DANGER header is used when there is a hazardous situation which has a high probability of death or severe injury. It should not be considered for property damage unless personal injury risk is present.

2) Caution signs. (i) :

2) Caution signs. (i) The CAUTION header is used to indicate a hazardous situation which may result in minor or moderate injury. However, Caution should not be used when there is a possibility of death or serious injury.

(3) Safety instruction signs :

(3) Safety instruction signs General Safety Signs (SAFETY FIRST, BE CAREFUL, THINK) should indicate general instructions relative to safe work practices, reminders of proper safety procedures, and the location of safety equipment.

(4) Biological hazard signs. :

(4) Biological hazard signs. The biological hazard warning shall be used to signify the actual or potential presence of a biohazard and to identify equipment, containers, rooms, materials, experimental animals, or combinations thereof, which contain, or are contaminated with, viable hazardous agents.

Pictograph:

Pictograph Pictograph means a pictorial representation used to identify a hazardous condition or to convey a safety instruction

Signal Word:

Signal Word Signal word means that portion of a tag's inscription that contains the word or words that are intended to capture the employee's immediate attention.

Tag:

Tag Tag means a device usually made of card, paper, pasteboard, plastic or other material used to identify a hazardous condition.

Danger Tags:

Danger Tags Danger tags shall be used in major hazard situations where an immediate hazard presents a threat of death or serious injury to employees. Danger tags shall be used only in these situations.

Caution Tags:

Caution Tags Caution tags shall be used in minor hazard situations where a non-immediate or potential hazard or unsafe practice presents a lesser threat of employee injury. Caution tags shall be used only in these situations.

Warning Tags:

Warning Tags Warning tags may be used to represent a hazard level between "Caution" and "Danger," instead of the required "Caution" tag, provided that they have a signal word of "Warning," an appropriate major message

Biological Hazard Tags:

Biological Hazard Tags The symbol design for biological hazard tags shall conform to the design shown below:

Color Coding-Danger Tag:

Color Coding-Danger Tag " DANGER" -- Red, or predominantly red, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color .

Color Coding-Caution Tag:

Color Coding-Caution Tag "CAUTION" -- Yellow, or predominantly yellow, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color.

Color Coding-Warning Tag:

Color Coding-Warning Tag "WARNING" -- Orange, or predominantly orange, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color.

Biological Hazard Tag:

Biological Hazard Tag BIOLOGICAL HAZARD -- Fluorescent orange or orange-red, or predominantly so, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color.

References :

References Pharmaceutical production & management by C.V.S. Subrahmanayam first edition Vallabh prakashan. Pg 393-412. the theory & practice of industrial pharmacy by Leon Lachman, Herbert. A. Lieberman, Joseph. kaing, 3 rd edition Varghese publishing house. www.osha.gov

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