SAGAR GHOSH--CHEMISTRY HOLIDAY HW(PUJA VACATION)

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Slide 1: 

Hi HELLO EVERYONE….. LET ME INTRODUCE MYSELF!! I AM PROFFESSOR THOMPSON AND I WILL BE TAKING YOUR CHEMISTRY CLASS TODAY……….. KINDLY COOPERATE WITH ME AND YOU WILL HAVE A GREAT TIME! HAPPY LEARNING!!!!!

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Hi WE WILL BE FOCUSSING ON BASICALLY FOUR TOPICS WHICH WILL BE PRESENTED IN THE FORM OF INTERESTING SLIDES….. THERE WILL BE INTERESTING INFORMATION REGARDING EVERY TOPIC… SO SIT BACK , UNDERSTAND AND AT THE SAME TIME ENJOY!!!!!!!

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SO LET US FIRST START WITH TAKING A LOOK AT THE TOPICS WE WILL BE LEARNING IN TODAY’S CLASS………..

Slide 4: 

GALVANIC CELL ACTIVATION ENERGY AND ITS EFFECT ON REACTION RATES CONTACT PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF SULPHURIC ACID HABER PROCESS FOR PREPARATION OF AMMONIA

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SSO LET US COME TO THE FIRST TOPIC FOR TODAY’S CLASS !!!!!! A) GALVANIC CELL

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CAN YOU FIGURE OUT WHAT THE FOLLOWING ITEMS HAVE IN COMMON ?

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Yes you got it right . They use this to operate! An electric cell commonly known as a battery…..

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A battery, also known as a Galvanic cell or a Voltaic cell, provides electrical energy through oxidation-reduction reactions inside the cell.

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The following are pictures of an electrolytic cell and a galvanic cell.

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In the galvanic cell, a chemical change produces electrical energy. The cathode is the positive electrode while the anode is the negative electrode. The two electrodes are placed in two separate containers containing two different electrolytes. There is also a salt bridge linking the two containers. Cu2+ + Zn Cu + Zn2+ Cu2+ + Zn Cu + Zn2+ Cu2+ + Zn Cu + Zn2+ Cu2+ + Zn Cu + Zn2+ Cu2+ + Zn Cu + Zn2+ Cu2+ + Zn Cu + Zn2+

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SO FAR WE HAVE LEARNT A LOT ABOUT GALVANIC CELL ……… BUT NOW WE GO A STEP MORE TOWARDS FASCINATION AND INTEREST!!!!!! DO YOU HAVE ANY IDEA THAT MOST OF US ALSO EAT A BATTERY???? SURPRISED???? CLICK OVER TO THE NEXT SLIDE TO FIND HOW>>>>>>>

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THE ANSWER MIGHT HAVE OCCURRED TO YOU………… THEY ARE CITRUS FRUIT WHICH CONTAIN ACIDS LIKE LEMONS, ORANGES, etc…….. QUITE INTERESTING, IS IT NOT ?????

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AND NOW IT IS TIME TO MOVE ON TO THE NEXT TOPIC………… ACTIVATION ENERGY AND ITS EFFECT ON REACTION RATES !!!!

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WHAT IS ACTIVATION ENERGY?? The Activation Energy (Ea) determines how fast a reaction occurs, the higher Activation barrier, the slower the reaction rate. The lower the Activation barrier, the faster the reaction It is the energy required to overcome the reaction barrier. Usually given a symbol Ea or ∆G≠

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Catalyst lowers the activation energy for both forward and reverse reactions. How is Activation Energy affected by a catalyst ??

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SO IN A NUTSHELL WE CAN SAY ABOUT ACTIVATION ENERGY THAT: IT IS A TERM INTRODUCED BY ARRHENIUS WHICH IS BASICALLY THE ENERGY THAT HAS TO BE OVERCOME IN ORDER FOR A CHEMICAL REACTION TO OCCUR. IT IS DENOTED BY Ea, THE UNIT FOR THIS TERM IS kilojoules per mole SO WE CAN ALSO SAY THAT FOR A CHEMICAL REACTION TO PROCEED AT A REASONABLE RATE, THERE SHOULD EXIST AN APPRECIABLE NUMBER OF MOLECULES WITH ENERGY EQUAL TO OR GREATER THAN THE ACTIVATION ENERGY!!!!!

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I MUST SAY YOU MUST NOW TAKE A BREAK FROM THE WORLD OF FORMULAS AND DEFINITIONS …. I HAVE GOT SOMETHING EVEN MORE INTERESTING>>>>> SO SIT BACK AND ENJOY THIS VIDEO PREPARED SPECIALLY TO MAKE YOU UNDERSTAND ACTIVATION ENERGY EVEN BETTER…………………………. THE NEXT SLIDE IS DEDICATED TO THE VIDEO>>>>>>

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DOUBLE CLICK ON THE WHITE CIRCLE TO SEE THE VIDEO ON ACTIVATION ENERGY (USE HIGH VOLUME FOR BEST PERFORMANCE)

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BY NOW I THINK YOU MUST HAVE GOT A CLEAR CONCEPTION ABOUT ACTIVATION ENERGY AND ITS EFFECTS ON REACTION RATES….. NOW I WANT ALL OF YOU TO FOCUS ON THE NEXT TOPIC…….

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CONTACT PROCESS--- FOR THE PREPARATION OF SULPHURIC ACID !!!!!!

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1 2 3 4 Dry air Sulphur SO2 Sulphuric acid Waste gases SO3 THE FOLLOWING FLOWCHART SUMMARISES THE SEQUENCE OF THE PROCEDURES DURING CONTACT PROCESS......

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THE SEQUENCES AND PROCEDURES FOLLOWED DURING CONTACT PROCESS ARE INDEED INTERESTING……. THE ENTIRE PROCESS CONSISTS OF FOUR STEPS WHICH TAKE PLACE IN DIFFERENT MACHINES……… BELOW IS A BRIEFING OF THE STEPS FOLLOWED ALONG WITH THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS. THE FURNACE---- AIR IS AT FIRST CLEANED BY ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION, DRIED AND THEN HEATED TO ABOUT 600oC. PURE LIQUID SULPHUR IS THEN SPRAYED IN THE FURNACE REACTING WITH THE OXYGEN IN THE AIR. THE PRODUCT FORMED IS SULPHUR-DIOXIDE. S(l) + O2(g) SO2(g)

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THE HEAT EXCHANGER--- THE SULPHUR-DIOXIDE IS COOLED TO 400°C. IT IS THEN COMPRESSED TO 2 ATMOSPHERE PRESSURE BUT IT CAN BE AS HIGH AS 200 atm . THE WASTE HEAT IS USED TO HEAT WATER INTO STEAM WHICH IS IN TURN USED TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY OR TO HEAT OTHER PARTS OF THE PROCESS. THE CONVERTER ---------- THE CONVERTER CONTAINS LAYERS OF A CATALYST, VANADIUM(V)OXIDE OR V2O5 . THE SULPHUR DIOXIDE REACTS WITH MORE DRY AIR TO FORM SULPHUR-TRIOXIDE. THIS REACTION IS REVERSIBLE AND REACHES A CERTAIN EQUILIBRIUM. NOTE—THIS IS AN EXOTHERMIC REACTION AND THE TEMPERATURE RISES TO MORE THAN 600°C. EQUATION---2SO2 (g) + O2 (g)  2SO3 (g)

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THE ABSORBER---- SULPHUR TRIOXIDE WILL DISSOLVE IN WATER TO FORM SULPHURIC ACID.HOWEVER IT IS VIOLENTLY EXOTHERMIC AND USUALLY RESULTS IN A MIST OF SULPHURIC ACID DROPLETS THAT ARE VERY DIFFICULT TO CONTROL !! CHEMICAL EQUATION-- SO3 (g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(l) NOTE :- HOWEVER DUE TO MODERN AND ECONOMIC REASONS SULPHUR TRIOXIDE IS BUBBLED THROUGH CONCENTRATED SULPHURIC ACID THAT CONTAINS VERY LITTLE WATER, TO FORM 98% SULPHURIC ACID, KNOWN AS OLEUM.

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THE PROCESSES MENTIONED IN THE PREVIOUS SLIDES WERE MERELY THE CONVENTIONAL PROCESSES OF PREPARATION OF SULPHURIC ACID. BUT IN INDUSTRY, THERE HAS BEEN A LOT MORE ADDING OF NEW PROCEDURES…..PLEASE TAKE A LOOK AT THE DIAGRAM TO UNDERSTAND HOW ACTUALLY THE WORK GOES ON IN THE FACTORIES…….

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SO ARE YOU ENJOYING THE CLASS???? SO FAR WE HAVE LEARNT A LOT…..HAVE’NT WE????? BUT WE HAVE ONE LAST CHAPTER TO UNDERSTAND AND ENJOY BEFORE WE PACK UP……. IT IS HABER PROCESS USED EXCLUSIVELY FOR THE PREPARATION OF AMMONIA!!!

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LET ME FIRST TELL YOU A STORY ABOUT THE HISTORY OF THE HABER’S PROCESS…. YOU HAVE HEARD OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR…DURING THAT TIME AMMONIA WAS USED EXTENSIVELY FOR MANUFACTURING EXPLOSIVES. BUT THINGS TOOK A DIFFERENT TURN WHEN THE ALLIED FORCES BLOCKED THE TRADE ROUTES COMING TO AND GOING FROM GERMANY JUST TO MAKE IT LOSE IT SUPPLIES OF POTASSIUM NITRATE AND SODIUM NITRATE WHICH WERE USED TO MAKE NITROGEN AND HENCE PREPARE AMMONIA…. THEN RELIEF CAME IN THE FORM OF FRITZ HABER A GERMAN CHEMIST WHO INVENTED THE IDEA OF USING MOLECULAR NITROGEN IN AIR AND COMBINING IT WITH MOLECULAR HYDROGEN TO PRODUCE AMMONIA GAS(NH3). THIS PROCESS BECAME VERY POPULAR IN THE PREPARATION OF AMMONIA AND WAS HENCE NAMED HABER’S PROCESS . WE WILL BE LEARNING MORE ABOUT THIS IN THE NEXT SLIDES……

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BELOW IS A FLOWCHART WHICH ILLUSTRATES THE HABER’S PROCESS !!!!THE NEXT SLIDE WILL GIVE A MORE THEORITICAL VIEW REGARDING THIS DIAGRAM .

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THE HABER’S PROCESS LIKE YOU SAW IN THE PREVIOUS DIAGRAM CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING PROCESSES…… The Haber Process combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived mainly from natural gas (methane) into ammonia. The reaction is reversible and the production of ammonia is exothermic. A flow scheme for the Haber Process looks like this:

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THE ENTIRE HABER PROCESS IS BASED ON THE FOLLOWING REVERSIBLE REACTION:- N2(g) + 3H2(g) <--> 2NH3(g) + 92 kJ THERE ARE TWO RAW MATERIALS WHICH ARE NEEDED FOR THIS PROCESS. THEY ARE:- 1)WATER FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 2)AIR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF NITROGEN GAS PROCESS :- THE HYDROGEN FOR THE REACTION IS GENERALLY OBTAINED BY REACTING METHANE OR NATURAL GAS WITH STEAM, IN THE PRESENCE OF NICKEL-OXIDE AS A CATALYST.THE HYDROGEN IS THEN MADE TO PASS OVER BEDS OF IRON-OXIDE, ALONG WITH NITROGEN GAS FROM THE ATMOSPHERE.AS THE REACTION IS VERY SLOW UNDER ROOM TEMPERATURE, THE TEMPERATURE IS INCREASED TO ACCELERATE THE PROCESS.THE REACTION IS EXOTHERMIC SO AN INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE WILL ONLY FAVOUR THE REVERSE REACTION LEADING TO FURTHER REDUCTION OF THE PRODUCT...

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THERE ARE SEVERAL FACTORS TO BE KEPT IN MIND DURING THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF AMMONIA BY CONTACT PROCESS:- • THE LOWER THE TEMPERATURE USED, THE SLOWER THE REACTION BECOMES. • THE COMPROMISE TEMPERATURE PRODUCING A REASONABLY HIGH PROPORTION OF AMMONIA IN THE EQUILIBRIUM MIXTURE IN ASHORT TIME IS 400 - 500° C. • THE HIGHER THE PRESSURE THE BETTER IT IS IN TERMS OF A GAS REACTION. •VERY HIGH PRESSURE ARE VERY EXPENSIVE TO PRODUCE ON TWO COUNTS. EXTEME STRONG PIPES AND CONTAINMENT VESSELS ARE NECESSARY TO WITHSTAND VERY HIGH PRESSURE.. THIS INCREASES THE CAPITAL COST WHILE THE PLANT IS BUILT. HIGH PRESSURE IS INDEED EXPENSIVE TO PRODUCE AND MAINTAIN. NOTE:- THE CATALYST IS ACTUALLY SLIGHTLY MORE COMPLICATED THAN PURE IRON . IT HAS POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE ADDED TO IT AS A PROMOTER- A SUBSTANCE WHICH INCREASES ITS EFFICIENCY…..

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Now comes the final part of the Haber’s process, i.e. separating the ammonia from the rest…………….. When the gases leave the reactor they are hot and at a very high pressure. Ammonia is easily liquefied under pressure as long as it isn't too hot, and so the temperature of the mixture is lowered enough for the ammonia to turn to a liquid. The nitrogen and hydrogen remain as gases even under these high pressures, and can be recycled. Thus ammonia is obtained by Haber’s process . We will now take a look at a cross-section of the apparatus used in the process in the next slide…

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Diagram of processes and setup of apparatus during Haber’s process…….

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WE HAVE THUS COME TO THE END OF TODAY’S CLASS…… I HOPE THAT YOU FOUND IT INTERESTING AND ENJOYABLE. IT HAS BEEN A PLEASURE ON MY PART SHARING MY RESOURCES WITH YOU……. SO GOOD LUCK AND CHECK OUT THE NEXT SLIDE TO KNOW THE WEBSITES WHERE YOU CAN GET INFORMATION ABOUT THE CHAPTERS WE LEARNT TODAY… IT ALSO HAS THE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…. THANK YOU CLASS!!!!!!!!! AND HAPPY LEARNING!!!

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THANK YOU MR THOMPSON FOR THAT EXCELLENT CLASS…… THANK YOU UNTILTED PAINT FOR HELPING ME MAKE MR THOMPSON’S FACE…. I AM INDEED GRATEFUL TO THE FOLLOWING WEBSITES WHICH HAVE RENDERED ME THE VARIOUS INFORMATION NEEDED…… www.google.com www.prenhall.com www.kentchemistry.com www.wisegeek.com www.haberchemistry.tripod.com AND LAST BUT NOT THE LEAST, MICROSOFT OFFICE 2007 WITHOUT WHICH ALL THIS WOULD HAVE BEEN IMPOSSIBLE!!!!!!!!!

Slide 36: 

THANK YOU FROM : SAGAR GHOSH (WHO MADE THE PRESENTATION WHICH INCLUDED MR.THOMPSON)

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