Pharmacognosy introduction

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INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOGNOSY Sachin B. Narkhede Smt. B. N. B. Swaminarayan Pharmacy College Salvav, Vapi

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‘Pharmacognosy’ pharmakon ‘a drug’ (Greek) gignosco ‘ to acquire knowledge of’ (Greek) OR cognosco ‘to know about’ (Latin) Pharmacognosy is scientific systematic study of sensory physical, chemical, structural characters and uses of crude drugs along with history, distribution, cultivation, collection, processing for market and preservation.

Sources of Crude drug :

Sources of Crude drug Crude Drugs Plants Animal Marine Mineral

Naturally occurring substances having a medicinal action::

Naturally occurring substances having a medicinal action: Surgical dressings prepared from natural fibres Flavourings and suspending agents Disintegrants Filtering and support media Other associated fields: Poisonous and hallucinogenic plants Raw materials for production of oral contraceptives Allergens Herbicides and insecticides

Pharmacognosy is related to::

Pharmacognosy is related to: Botany Ethnobotany Marine biology Microbiology Herbal medicine Chemistry (phytochemistry) Pharmacology Pharmaceutics

Skills and techniques valuable elsewhere::

Skills and techniques valuable elsewhere: Analysis of other commodoties Foods, spices, gums, perfumes, fabrics, cosmetics Used by Public analysts, forensic sciences, quality-control scientists Role in pure sciences Botany, plant taxonomy, phytochemistry Botanists and chemists looking at: Chemical plant taxonomy, genetic/enzymatic studies involving 2 y metabolites Artificial and tissue culture Effects of chemicals on plant metabolites Induction of abnormal syntheses Bioassay-guided isolation techniques

Types of crude drugs: :

Types of crude drugs: Organized crude drug (cellular) eg. any organ part of the plats like leaf, fruit, flower, stem, bark, root..etc Un organized crude (a cellular) eg. gum, resin, exudates, extract..etc

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Crude drugs can be Classified as : Alphabetical Taxonomic** botanical classification Morphological Organised drugs: leaves, flowers, fruit, seeds etc Unorganised drugs: extracts, gums, resins, oils etc Pharmacological/therapeutic* Increasingly used with screening Constituents of one drug may fall into several groups Chemical Chemical constituents

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