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COMPUTER NETWORK Computer Network is a connection among computers to enable transmission and exchange of data and information. Its objective to share information, resources (both hardware & software), and processing load.


TYPES OF NETWORKS LANs (Local Area Networks) WANs (Wide Area Networks) Internet Intranet VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) Client/Server Networks Inter Organizational Networks


NETWORK TOPOLOGIES The network topology/structure/ architecture is the way the computers or devices are connected to a network. The layout or actual appearance of the cabling scheme used on a network.


TYPES OF TOPOLOGIES Star Network Topology Ring Network Topology Bus Network Topology Mesh Network Topology Hybrid Network Topology

Star Network Topology : 

Star Network Topology It has multiple nodes connected to a host node. Communication is done through the host node.

Advantages Of Star Topology: : 

Advantages Of Star Topology: It has minimal line cost because only n-1 lines are required for connecting n nodes. Transmission delays two nodes don’t increase by adding new nodes to network. If any node other than host node fails, remaining nodes are unaffected.

Disadvantage of Star Topology: : 

Disadvantage of Star Topology: The system crucially depends on host node. If it fails, entire network fails. Many star networks require a device at the central point to rebroadcast or switch network traffic.

Ring Network Topology : 

Ring Network Topology Each node has two communicating subordinates (adjacent node with which it can communicate directly), but there is no master node for controlling adjacent nodes. Each computer is connected to the next computer with the last one connected to the first.

Advantages of Ring Topology: : 

Advantages of Ring Topology: It works well where there is no central node for making routing decisions. It is more reliable than a star network because communication is not dependent on a single central node. If a link between any two nodes fails, or if one of the nodes fails, alternate routing is possible.

Disadvantages of Ring Topology: : 

Disadvantages of Ring Topology: In a ring network, communication delay is directly proportional to number of nodes in the network. Hence, addition of new nodes in a network increases comm. delay. It requires more complicated control software than star network.

Bus Network Topology : 

Bus Network Topology In this topology all nodes share a single transmission medium. Every computer can communicate with other computers directly. Only one computer at a time can send a message

Advantages of Bus Topology: : 

Advantages of Bus Topology: It helps in reducing the number of physical lines. Failure of a node doesn’t affect communication among other nodes in the network. Addition of new nodes to the network is easy.

Disadvantages of Bus Topology: : 

Disadvantages of Bus Topology: All nodes in a network must have good comm. and decision-making capability. If the shared comm. line fails, entire network fails.

Mesh Network Topology : 

Mesh Network Topology It has a separate link for connecting each node to any other node. Each node has a direct link, called point-to-point link, with all other nodes in the network.

Advantages of Mesh Topology: : 

Advantages of Mesh Topology: It is very reliable because any link failure will affect only direct comm. b/w the nodes connected by that link. Each node of the network need not have individual routing capability. Comm. is very fast b/w any two nodes.

Disadvantage of Mesh Topology: : 

Disadvantage of Mesh Topology: It is most expensive network from the point of view of link cost.

Hybrid Network Topology : 

Hybrid Network Topology It is a combination of two or more different network topologies. This network may have components of star, ring and bus networks. Common in large wide-area networks

Advantages of Hybrid Topology: : 

Advantages of Hybrid Topology: One company can combine the benefits of several different types of topologies. Workgroup efficiency and traffic can be customized.

Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology: : 

Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology: Devices on one topology cannot be placed into another topology without some hardware changes.

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