Materials of Construction


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Metals Ferrous Cast Iron Carbon Steel Stainless Steel Non- Ferrous Aluminum Copper Non Metals Inorgani c Glass Organic Plastic

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FERROUS METALS  Widely used because of its mechanical strength abundant availability and lower cost. Varieties of iron are  1. Cast Iron  2. Carbon Steel  3. Stainless steel

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CAST IRON  Cast Iron consist of Iron with a proportion of carbon beyond 1.5 .  The properties of Iron depends on the amount of carbon present.  Cast iron is abundantly available inexpensive. 1. Geary Cast iron: Contains CSiMn. Most Economical Common 2. White Cast Iron: Prepared by Molten Iron. Wear resistent 3. Malleable Cast Iron: Made from Gray Cast Iron

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• Cheap • Resistant to conc. H2SO4. HNO3 and dilute alkalis. • It has low thermal conductivity so used for construction of outer jackets of steam pans. Advantages • It is very hard and brittle so difficult to machine. • It is attacked by dil H2SO4. HNO3 as well as conc. HCl. • It has low thermal conductivity so not used for heat transfer in steels. Disadvantages • Supports for Plant. • Jackets of steam pans. • Lining with plastic or suitable protective materials Uses

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Modification s 1. Gray Cast Iron 3. High Silicon Cast Iron 4. Nickel Resistant Cast iron 2. Malleable Iron

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GRAY CAST IRON • Carbon • Silicon Composition • Low cost • Easy to cast into shades and linings Properties • Brittle • Poor resistant to impact and shock Disadvantages

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MALLEABLE IRON • Grey cast iron • Carbon 2-5 Composition • Corrosion resistant • Type 1 easy to machine. Properties • Type 2 less easy to machine. Disadvantages

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HIGH SILICON CAST IRON • Cast iron • Silicon 13 - 16 Composition • Resistant to corrosion oxidizing and reducing environment Properties • Cannot be easily machined and welded. Disadvantages

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NICKEL RESISTANT CAST IRON • Superior toughness • Impact resistant. • Easy to weld and machine. • Corrosion resistant and heat resistant. Properties • Oxidizing agents are highly detrimental. • There is a Little attack from neutral or alkaline solution. Disadvantages

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• Cheapest • Easily weldable and used in fabrication Advantages • Carbon steel has limited resistant to corrosion. It can be improved by preparing alloys. • It reacts with caustic soda brine and sea water. Alloying can reduce this properties. Disadvantages • Used in construction of bars pipes and plates. • Used to fabricate large storage tanks for water and organic solvents. • Also used for supporting structures. Uses 2. CARBON STEEL OR MILD STEEL CARBON STEEL IS AN IRON ALLOY WHICH CONTAINS ONLY A SMALL PERCENTAGE OF CARBON.

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Modifications Alloying it with other metals alter the properties 1. Nickel Improves toughness corrosion resistant 3. Molybdenum provides strength at elevated temp. 4. Silicon Increases hardness abrasive and corrosion resistant 2. Chromium Increases hardness abrasive and corrosion resistant

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3. STAINLESS STEEL  It is an alloy of Iron.  It contains chromium and nickel which makes the steel corrosion resistant. E.g. 18/8 Steel in Pharma  It is stabilized by the addition of titanium or tantalum.  Minor amount of other elements such as copper molybdenum selenium are added imparts the advantages of ease of fabrication. Properties of Stainless Steel  1. Heat resistant  2. Corrosion Resistant  3. Ease of fabrication.  4. Tensile strength  5. Cleaning and Sterilization.

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Martensitic Type 410 Ferritic Type 430 α- form Types of Stainless Steel Austenitic γ-form

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MARTENSITIC • Chromium : 12- 20 • Carbon : 0.2-.4 • Nickel up to : 2.0 Composition • Mildly corrosion resistant Advantages • Poor Ductility Dis- Advantages • Sinks bench tops storage tanks buckets etc. Uses

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AUSTENITIC • Chromium : 13-20 • Carbon : up to 0.25 • Nickel: up to 6-22 Composition • Highly corrosion resistant. • Can be easily cleaned sterilizable. • Easy to weld Advantages • Not easy to machine. Dis- Advantages • Fermentors storage vessels evaporators extraction vessels buckets funnels. Uses

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FERRITIC • Chromium : 15-30 • Carbon : 0.1 • Nickel: 0 Composition • Better corrosion resistant • Easy to machine Advantages • Not good against reducing agents Dis- Advantages • Tower linings Baffles Separator tower heat exchanger tubings condensers furnace parts pumps shafts valve parts.. Uses

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Non-Ferrous Metals 1.Aluminium 2. Copper

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1.ALUMINIUM  It is cheap light in weight and offer good mechanical strength.  Al. equipment can be easily fabricated.  Al. can be strengthened by cold working.  Number of modifications of Al are available.  Al is non toxic to micro-organism.

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• High resistant to atm conditions industrial fumes vapour and fresh or salt waters. • Thermal conductivity of Al. is 60 that of pure copper. Advantages • Mechanical strength decrease above 150 0 C. • Al. can not be used with strong caustic solution. • Many mineral acids attack Al. • Oxide hydro-oxide films form rapidly when exposed. Disadvantages • Preferred for food and pharmaceutical use. • Used in heat transfer. • Used as storage containers. • Used in Production of citric acid gluconic acid and streptomycin Uses

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2.COPPER  It has the lowest cost.  Malleable Ductile  Thermal Conductivity is 8 times more than Steel  Corrosion can be possible by HNO3 Hot Conc.HCl Hot Conc.H2SO4.  Copper is protected by Tin lining when used in Pharma Plant

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ALLOYS OF COPPER Cu+Zn Alloy Chances of Corrosion are more Tensile Strength is more than Copper Brass Cu+Tin Alloy 2-13 Tin + Small amount of Phosphorous Harder Durable than Brass Bronze

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NON- METAL Inorganic •1.GLASS

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1.GLASS •Sand : Silica pure SiO2 : Base material •Soda Ash : Na2CO3 : Improves the properties. •Lime stone : CaCO3 : Improves the properties. •Cullet : Broken glass : Fusion agent Composition • Superior protective qualities attractive and low cost. • Chemically inert to large extent • Available in variety of sizes shapes and colors. Advantages • UV rays and sunlight are harmful to certain ingredients and cause deterioration. • Protection against light can be obtained by amber colored bottle and against IR rays by green color glass. Dis- Advantages • Mostly used in pharmaceutical industries as a containers. Uses

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1. GLASS  The glass that is prepared by silicon dioxide alone is the most resistant but relatively brittle.  It can be melted and moulded at high temp.  To modify the physicochemical properties cations such as sodium potassium calcium magnesium aluminum boron iron etc can be added.  Glass containers used in pharmaceutical industries are classified in four groups class I class II class III class IV.

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Different Types of Glass I II III IV Highly resistant borosilicate. Alkali earth cations are replaced by boron Treated soda-lime glass Soda-lime glass General purpose Soda-lime glass. Resistant to alkali leaching less brittle low thermal expansion easy to clean sterilize. Surface alkali is neutralized by sulphur dioxide vapors. Glass surface is resistant to water. It release comparatively more alkali. It offers moderate hydrolytic resistance Containers for buffered 7 unbuffered aqueous solution injectables. Containers for buffered aqueous solution with pH below 7.0 dry powders oleaginous solution. Dry powders oleaginous solutions. Not for parenterals used as containers for tablets oral solutions suspensions ointments liq. For external use. Types General Description Properties Uses

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NON- METAL Organic •Plastic

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1. PLASTICS  Plastics are synthetic resins containing long chains of atoms linked to form giant or macromolecules polymer.  Light in weight so transportation is easy and cheap.  Available in variety of shape and easily fabricated.  Used for storing number of materials.  In machines plastic material is preferred wherever moving parts are present indicating that it offers less resistant.  They have high molecular weight.

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Advantages • Low thermal and electrical resistance. • Excellent resistance to weak mineral acids. • Unaffected by inorganic salts. • Resistant to small changes to pH. Dis- advantages • Low mechanical strength. • High expansion rates.

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TYPE OF PLASTICS • Thermosetting plastics can be formed under heat and pressure. But this can not be softened or remoulded once hardened. • Some are made of phenolic and urea. Thermosetting plastics • They are formed by the application of heat and pressure can be softened and remouled. • Polyethene: cables buckets pipes. • Polypropylene: milk cartons ropes. • Polyvinyl chloride: gloves water proof garments. • Teflon: gaskets coatings. Thermoplasti c plastics

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