Sympathomimetic Drugs

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SYMPATHOMIMETIC DRUGS AND THEIR USES Presented by Sachchidanand Pathak Sunder Deep Pharmacy College

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Phenylephrine - Nasal decongestant, common cold. As eye drops :- Dilating the pupil, Treating glaucoma, Reducing redness of the eye. Injectable phenylephrine :- Increasing blood pressure, Controlling an irregular heart rhythm (arrhythmia), Maintaining adequate blood pressure during anesthesia, Prolonging the action of spinal anesthesia. Mephentermine - Used to prevent and treat hypotension and Myocardial Infarction. Dopamine - Used in patient of cardiogenic or septic sock and sever CHF where it increases B.P. and urine outflow . Methoxamine - Induces vasoconstriction, Nasal decongestion and antihypotensive.

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Epinephrine (Adrenaline) - Asthma (emergency treatment), to treat cardic arrest, anaphylactic shock and other cardiac dysarhythmias and treatment of croup (breathing difficulties). Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline) - Fight-or-flight response (directly increasing heart rate), release of glucose from energy stores, and increasing blood flow to skeletal muscle it increases blood pressure. Ephedrine - Used as a CNS stimulant, appetite suppressant, used in the treatment of asthma and bronchitis, decreases gastric emptying, hypotension, decongestant, Ephedrine promotes weight loss, used to treat certain sleep disorders (narcolepsy), menstrual problems (dysmenorrhea), or urine-control problems (enuresis).

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Dobutamine - Used in MI, cardiac surgery and CHF. Clonidine - Used as antihypertensive drug, in migraine, anxiety and panic disorder,  treatment for insomnia,  for relief of menopausal symptoms, prolong the effects of analgesia when used together with a local anesthetic. Methyldopa - Used as antihypertensive and gestational hypertension also known as pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH),  prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. Guanfacine - lowers both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, treatment of anxiety and antihypertensive drug.

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Guanabenz - Antihypertensive drug, It also reduces the force of contraction of heart muscles and arteries. Naphazoline - Used as nasal decongestant, It is vasoconstrictor with a rapid action in reducing swelling when applied to mucous membrane, used to treat colds, allergies, or eye irritations. Pseudoephedrine - Nasal decongestant, treatment of priapism (involuntary erection of penis) or ear infections, Relieving sinus congestion and pressure, It reduces tissue hyperemia and edema. Oxymetazoline - Used as topical decongestants, to treat epistaxix (bleeding from nose) and eye redness. Xylometazoline - Used as topical decongestants.

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Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) - Used as a stimulant, decongestant, anorectic agent, in cough and cold preparations. Bromocriptine - Used to treat the following conditions:- Acromegaly (a hormonal growth disorder) Hyperprolactinemia (high levels of the hormone prolactin) Parkinson's disease Type 2 diabetes. Fenoldopam - Used as antihypertensive drug. Midodrine - Antihypertensive (treatment of orthostatic hypotension) Tizanidine - Used as a muscle relaxant.

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Salbutamol (Albuterol) - Used for the relief of bronchospasm (Asthma) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, used as a tocolytic to relax the uterine smooth muscle to delay premature labor. Isoproterenol ( isoprenaline) - Asthma and bronchitis,  used to treat torsades de pointes, cardiac arrest and cardiogenic shock. Terbutaline - Used to treat asthma and emphysema, tocolytic to delay premature labor (Delay of parturition). Apraclonidine and brimonidine - Used in glaucoma to reduce intraocular pressure. Amphetamines - weak anticonvulsant, analgesic, antiemetics and antiepileptics. (Used as CNS stimulant in narcolepsy).

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Isoxsuprine - Uterine relaxant (abortion and dysmenorrhoea). Ritodrine - Tocolytic drug (Delay of parturition). Fenfluramine and Dexfenfluramine - Tranquilliser Sibutramine - Antiobesity drugs (suppresses appetite). Prenalterol - In the treatment of acute cardiac failure, shock, and postmyocardial infarction, reducing orthostatic hypotension in the Shy-Drager syndrome. Clenbuterol - Anabolic action to increase muscle strength,

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REFERENCE Goodman Louis S. & Gilman Alfred , “The pharmacological basis of Therapeutics”, eleventh edition. Tripathi KD , “Essential of medical pharmacology”, sixth edition. Katzung Bertram G. , “Basic and clinical pharmacology”, tenth edition, 2009. www.medicinenet.com www.pain.emedtv.com www.wikipedia.org 4/4/2012 9

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THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION 4/4/2012 10