History of Architectural Representations:Buildings; BIM and Beyond : History of Architectural Representations:Buildings; BIM and Beyond Sabu FrancisB.Arch(Hons)
Feb 4; 2009 Objectives of this talk : Objectives of this talk How do we architects flesh out a design problem?
How was it done in the past?
How is it being done currently?
How may it be done in future?
Understand a BIM (Building Information Modeler)
An example of a BIM
Part 2 will explore the “beyond” Modeling : Modeling Problems are solved twice: Once in the mind and once out there in the real world
Stephen Covey Simplest problem solving approach : M3 Simplest problem solving approach Design in the mind … … leads to architecture
in the real world M1 E.g. Nari Gandhi’s approach Introduce one step in between : M3 Introduce one step in between Design in the mind … … leads to architecture in the real world M1 M2 … leads to a design
representation M2 helps coordination : M2 helps coordination M2 CAD introduced one more step : M3 CAD introduced one more step Design in the mind … … leads to architecture in the real world M1 M2b … leads to drawings … leads to CAD file(s) M2a confusions : confusions Confusions on where to coordinate, what to coordinate M2b … leads to drawings … leads to CAD file(s) M2a More confusions : More confusions Due to specialization, each consultant adds more confusions Architects Structural consultants Other consultants An architectural project is an outcome of a dynamic multi-organization chain can be broken : chain can be broken “any structure is only as strong as its weakest link” Let us start at the beginning : Let us start at the beginning What is architecture? : What is architecture? Architecture is the physical context for life What is architecture? : What is architecture? All architecture is what you do to it when you look upon it,(Did you think it was in the white or gray stone? or the lines ofthe arches and cornices?) Song for the OccupationsWalt Whitman “do to it”… where? : “do to it”… where? Within the thickness of walls? Within the spaces? OR All architecture is what you do to it when you look upon it,(Did you think it was in the white or gray stone? or the lines ofthe arches and cornices?) Then, why is the architect … : Then, why is the architect … … obsessed by marks left on paper for things built… seem to take no effort to delineate spaces? AND Slide 16: Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1466), is credited with inventing the principles of linear perspective in drawing and painting.
Renaissance saw the “invention” of orthographic drawings and perspectives (“M2”) http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/REN/ARCHI.HTM Slide 17: Drawings were introduced in Renaissance times to help in the CONSTRUCTION of complicated buildings
We often forget this and use drawings even for the design process Over 600 years later : Over 600 years later We are still using orthographic drawings for representing designs during the design process Do drawings reflect the process? : Do drawings reflect the process? Design is a dynamic process. It proceeds from hazy, hesitant beginnings to a sharp, clear end
Architects need to have flexibility of representation during the hazy, hesitant beginnings
Drawings are only useful at the final point in the dynamics of the design process
Drawings forces the architect to show constructional aspects, even if those are unimportant Design process is like a flowing river : Design process is like a flowing river Drawings are mere snapshots of the river. They do not capture the dynamics, intentions and otherimmeasurable aspects of design Slide 21: Entire process should be modeled The design process is like a figure slowly emerging from a fog:
There should be an appropriate model each step of the way Designing starts with spaces : Designing starts with spaces Bubble diagrams explains spaces Spaces leads to walls : Spaces leads to walls Walls are required to differentiate spaces In the end, walls get fixed : In the end, walls get fixed http://www.cefpi.org/archexhibit/memberdisplay.esiml?year=2006&jid=858 …The spaces delineated during the
bubble-diagram stage disappear It is like how corals are formed : It is like how corals are formed In the end, only the hard exo-skeleton is left behind. The soft bodies within disappearc Ordinary folks understand spaces : Ordinary folks understand spaces Non-architects are generally comfortable with bubble diagrams BIM : BIM BIM (Building Information Modelers) attempt to capture ALL issues into one representation (in varying degrees of success)
BIM captures information of built-matter and spaces all together (in varying degrees of success)
BIM allows both 3D information as well as non-geometric information to be represented BIM-Deficiencies : BIM-Deficiencies Few BIM do hand-holding for the entire design process
Most BIM still talk mainly about the construction point of view. Spaces are poorly represented.
Most BIM enforce a very strict sequence of editing actions. E.g. Windows and doors can only be put once walls are in place
BIM software have complicated, top-heavy data structures and can consume lots of resources Is BIM same as 3D CAD? : Is BIM same as 3D CAD? 3D CAD is definitely not BIM!
BIM requires 3D modeling, of course
But BIM requires internal recognition of architectural elements
BIM also requires placement of a lot more properties onto those elements 3D Process : 3D Process Q1: What is the object? Q2: What is its 3D composition? Q3: What is best way to create the3D composition? A lot of graphics related work happens in the mind... … before it appears as a 3D CAD file Ans: Place the objectin its “decomposed”state 3D Models : 3D Models 3D models store architectural elements in a “de-composed” state
For e.g. A chair placed in a 3D model is kept within the computer file as a set of 3D elements: 3D faces, meshes, polylines, etc.
In short, the file does NOT “know” what those separate elements represent together BIM models : BIM models 3D models in a BIM software must be internally cohesive
For e.g. A chair placed in a BIM model is kept within the computer file as a set of 3D elements: 3D faces, meshes, polylines, etc. But then, the BIM software ties them up together to recognize the entire chair as one entity
This allows the BIM software to apply non-geometric properties also to the chair (e.g. cost, name of distributor, etc.) Two approaches for BIM : Two approaches for BIM An integrated approach:
All geometric as well as non-geometric information available in one file (or files) locally
A distributed approach:
Only one reference file is kept at one location. Other information is kept elsewhere distributed (usually on the Internet or on the LAN) Scope of BIM : Scope of BIM Very few BIM can be used right from the early stage of design
Almost all BIM software is useful only during the construction stage
A BIM file can neatly replace most of the documents required (geometric as well as non-geometric) when a design is finalized Why is BIM needed? : Why is BIM needed? Society has become too complex. Cannot afford confusions/mistakes
Important to exchange information even in the absence of professionals Why is BIM difficult to adopt? : Why is BIM difficult to adopt? BIM is mainly possible at the final and construction phases
Which means there are redundant drawings/sketches/CAD files prior to BIM
Which in turn means there are redundancies leading to error
BIM also insists on a rigid process of input. E.g: A door has to be created the way the BIM tells to.
Many don’t understand the need to input non-geometric information Now moving to the beyond ...Open Source Movementin Architecture : Now moving to the beyond ...Open Source Movementin Architecture Objective of this talk : Objective of this talk Convince that it is important to move away from individual islands of knowledge in architecture and instead form a unified knowledge continent where intelligent debates and discussions can take place Overview : Overview The strategies of the software industry
Introduction to the Open Source Movement
Analogies in other fields
Why is it important in architecture Strategies of the software industry : Strategies of the software industry Computer software: Why it came into existence?
Moving away from analytical approaches to synthesis approaches
The invention of the IBM-PC: The first open-source computer hardware Open Source Movement : Open Source Movement Introduction to the Open Source Movement
Free Software foundation
Influence in other areas: The Artistic Design License, Open Source Documentation License, etc. Summary of the Present Situation : Summary of the Present Situation Representing architecture four times (M1, M2a, M2b, M3) Development up to present : Development up to present Representing architecture thrice (M1, M2, M3)
Representing all things twice (M1 to M3) Potential Alternatives : Potential Alternatives Computer software: CAD and what else?
Pros and Cons
Forecast of costs The Four Freedoms : The Four Freedoms 0: The freedom to run the program, for any purpose
1: The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs
2: The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor
3: The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits Four Freedoms in Architecture : Four Freedoms in Architecture 0: Freedom to use any architectural information for any purpose
1: Freedom to study how an architectural work came to be, and adapt it to your needs
2: Freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor
3: Freedom to improve upon the representation of an architectural work and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits Why is Open Source required in architecture? : Why is Open Source required in architecture? Problems today in the world can only be solved holistically. Analytical approaches give partial or often incorrect results
See what happened with the WTC incident. If the “source code” of the buildings were freely available, some lives could possibly have been saved Recommendation : Recommendation Recommended strategy: Debate on what is the “source code” of architecture
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