Public Speaking: Public Speaking Hussein Sabit, Ph.D Assistant Professor, Misr University for Science & Technology, Egypt . A Fact: A Fact No one is born speaker !! Slide 3: “All speech, written or spoken, is a dead language, until it finds a willing and prepared hearer ” Do We Need to Listen? Topics to be covered: Topics to be covered How to be a good speakers How to listen carefully Tips for new speakers Words do affect .. Isn’t it?: Words do affect .. Isn’t it? A few well-chosen words can make the difference between a mediocre speech and a speech that enthralls Imagine if Nathan Hale had said, “Okay, I’m willing to die for my country,” instead of “I regret that I have but one life to give for my country”. Who is the good speaker?: Who is the good speaker? The speaker who is the one who can be heard without weariness. If his posture and gestures are so graceful and unobtrusive, that no one notices them, he may be counted as “ truly successful ”. The Speech : The Speech A speech isn’t something you do to someone. It’s something you do with them. They’ll react according to what you are giving to them. Let them interact and watch their faces and adapt. Types of communication: Types of communication Intrapersonal Interpersonal Small Group Public Mass communication Big Ideas about Communication: Big Ideas about Communication Communication is a Process Meanings are in People Communications involves Perceptions Perceptions are not always accurate Communication is Symbolic Communication requires Context We communicate to satisfy needs. Where is the spirit?: Where is the spirit? May untrained speakers give incredible presentations. Why? Because they spoke the truth and their intention was pure. Well-trained speakers give presentations with "perfect" technique but look like fools. So , Search the spirit in your presentation! ELEMENTS OF GOOD SPEECH: ELEMENTS OF GOOD SPEECH Attitude Rehearsal Verbal Expression Non-verbal Expression ATTITUDE: ATTITUDE Attitude matters a great deal with delivery. A confident presence is an aspect of your credibility and persuasiveness. Yet people have speaker apprehension, fear of speaking in front of an audience. This fear can become a self-fulfilling prophecy: We can make ourselves fail . . . or succeed. DON’T: DON’T * Comment on your own performance. * Apologize for your speaking, especially not before you speak. * Don’t hide behind, hats , or chew gum. * Don’t look over the audience heads or envision them naked (silly myths). * Don’t “watch your own feet when you dance.” You’re just the messenger: You’re just the messenger * Don’t stay focused on yourself or how people are regarding you. It’s not just about you. *Of the three elements necessary to the speaking process: a message, an audience for which the message is designed, and a messenger, the messenger is less important. DO: DO * Be conversational. A public speaking situation is still personal, if you speak naturally and make eye contact. Look at people. They’ll relate to you. * Move like you do in normal life, but much less. * Stay focused on your material. You’re just the messenger, not the point of the message. REHEARSAL: REHEARSAL Practice, practice, practice. Get your speeches written at least a week early and say them out loud every day. Say your speeches out loud as you’re writing them. Some phrasing looks good on the page, but doesn’t fit the tongue. It will remind you to keep language tight. Two backbones for the presentation : Two backbones for the presentation VOCAL EXPRESSION * You must speak loudly enough to be heard, clearly enough to be understood, and slowly enough for your audience to keep up. NONVERBAL EXPRESSION * Body language matters because it influences your credibility and helps the audience focus on your speech. Nonverbal “frames” the verbal. Vocal Expression: Vocal Expression There are five dimensions of voice that can be manipulated for greater effect. Volume - Speak louder or softer for emphasis. Pitch - Stay at an appropriate mid-range level. Rate - Accelerate for a few sentences to excite, Slow down and pause to emphasize some words. Articulation - Speak clearly with full voice. q uality - The personality of your voice, resonant, throaty, nasal, etc. Vocal Expression: Vocal Expression Be appropriate in tone Sometimes when we get nervous we laugh inappropriately during serious moments. Nonverbal Expression : Nonverbal Expression The nonverbal frames the verbal in this sense: Whichever behavior interrupts the other is the one that takes audience focus. If I move to draw their attention - gesture or take a step - then speak, they’ll hear me. If I start to speak, then move aimlessly, they’ll watch but not hear. Nonverbal Expression: Nonverbal Expression Stand still for a moment and make eye contact with your audience. Then start. Speak only once you’ve made contact. Stay in one place for awhile. Don’t pace around through the speech. Choose 2 or 3 places where you’ll take a step or two . Nonverbal Expression: Nonverbal Expression Gesture naturally , as you would when you talk with friends. Free your hands as much as possible to “allow” that to occur. Nonverbal Expression: Nonverbal Expression Clothing and accessories are an aspect of your persuasion. 1 ) Dress appropriately to the occasion. 2 ) Don’t hide under hats or behind sunglasses . 3 ) Watch jangling jewelry. SPEAK with you body…: SPEAK with you body… In a normal conversation between two persons, less than 35% of the social meanings is actually transmitted by words. So, at least 65% of it is conveyed through the body (non-verbal channel). 24 The 55%, 38%, 7% Rule: The 55%, 38%, 7% Rule This rule states that the meaning of communication is: 55% comes from body language , 38% comes from is in tonality , and 7% comes from the words themselves. : We Do Not Have Bodies “We are our bodies” Don’t be Poser !! : Don’t be Poser !! When your actions are related to your words, the impact of your speech will be strengthened . If those action are unrelated to your spoken message, they will call attention to themselves and away from your speech. Vocal Expression: Vocal Expression There are five dimensions of voice that can be manipulated for greater effect. Volume - Speak louder or softer for emphasis. Pitch - Stay at an appropriate mid-range level. Rate - Accelerate for a few sentences to excite, Slow down and pause to emphasize some words. Articulation - Speak clearly with full voice. Quality - The personality of your voice, resonant, throaty, nasal, etc. Vocal Expression: Vocal Expression * Be appropriate in tone . Sometimes when we get nervous we laugh inappropriately during serious moments. We may even become self-satirizing when nervous, playing as if it weren’t important. * While you don’t want to take yourself so seriously that you pressure yourself into errors, you should treat the process with respect. Nonverbal Expression: Nonverbal Expression Gesture naturally , as you would when you talk with friends. Free your hands as much as possible to “allow” that to occur. 1) Make the manuscript your friend with large font, double spacing, and only complete sentences on one page. (No orphans to break the pace). 2) Use the lectern for your notes. 3) Keep your hands out of your pockets. Nonverbal Expression: Nonverbal Expression Clothing and accessories are an aspect of your persuasion. 1) Dress appropriately to the occasion. 2) Don’t hide under hats or behind sunglasses. 3) Watch jangling jewelry. Effective Nonverbal Delivery: Effective Nonverbal Delivery Gestures should be relaxed, definite, varied, and appropriate. Movement should be purposeful. Posture should feel natural and be appropriate to your topic, audience, and occasion. Eye contact should be established before you say anything and sustained throughout your presentation. Facial expression should be alert, friendly, and appropriate . Effective Nonverbal Delivery: Effective Nonverbal Delivery Volume should be loud enough to be heard and varied. Pitch should be varied to sustain audience interest. Rate should be neither too fast nor too slow. Articulation should be clear and distinct. Appearance should conform to what the audience expects. Clarity: Clarity To achieve clarity and to ensure that everyone will understand what you are saying, you must do three things. 1. Emphasize what is of key importance. 2. De-emphasize what is of secondary importance. 3. Eliminate what is of no importance. In symbols Clarity: Clarity To achieve clarity and to ensure that everyone will understand what you are saying, you must do three things. 1. Emphasize what is of key importance. 2. De-emphasize what is of secondary importance. 3. Eliminate what is of no importance. In symbols CL = EDE. Public Speaking Produces Anxiety: Public Speaking Produces Anxiety 3. Death 2. Snakes 1. Public Speaking People’s Biggest Fears The issue is not whether or not you are nervous it is how you deal with that nervousness. Understanding Speaker Anxiety: Understanding Speaker Anxiety Speaker anxiety results from your brain signaling to your body to help with a challenging task. Blood flow Breathing rate Adrenaline Most speakers feel more nervous than they look. Managing Speaker Anxiety: Managing Speaker Anxiety Know how to Prepare a Presentation Be Prepared Focus on your Audience Focus on your message Think Positively Use deep-breathing Techniques These have two things in common: : These have two things in common: They are physical manifestations of simple nervousness. They are performed unconsciously What You Do With Your Communication Time: What You Do With Your Communication Time Speak = 30% Read = 16% Write = 9% Listen = 45% True or False?: True or False? It is possible to listen without hearing. It is possible to hear without listening. Listening Skills: Listening Skills Stop: Turn Off Competing Messages Decentering Look: Listen With Your Eyes Listen: Understand Details and Ideas Identify your listening goal Mentally summarize the details Link Message details with major idea Practice Transform barriers into goals Strategies for Informative Presentations: Strategies for Informative Presentations Make your message clear Make your message interesting Make your message memorable Word Stress: Does It Really Matter?: Word Stress: Does It Really Matter? Say the following words out loud: prog ress - pro gress ob ject - ob ject rec ord - re cord We would never say, “She wants to re cord a re cord one day,” but rather, “re cord a re cord.” The golden rule: The golden rule “ Human attention is the scarcest resource” Nobody Washes a Rental Car! : Nobody Washes a Rental Car! It's not enough to explain something in a way that you understand it; you must explain in such a way that the other person understands it. But, in the way you desired. Otherwise, they are left with their original belief, and nothing has changed . Don’t: Don’t Don't say, "Let me be honest with you," or "Let me be frank with you." If you want to emphasize a point beyond others you have made, say, "Probably the most important point I will make is…" Rid Yourself of Distracting Mannerisms: Rid Yourself of Distracting Mannerisms Some common faults of inexperienced or in-effective speakers are: Finger tapping Lip biting or licking Toying with coins or jewelry Frowning (forehead) Adjusting hair or clothing Slide 49: Always Keep Smile !! Don’t: Don’t Use Someone Else’s Speech or presentation without manipulating it ! It will be a disaster !! Don’t: Don’t Don't say "In conclusion…" unless you mean it. Too many speakers say the words and then take another five minutes to finish. Sometimes they will even say the word " conclusion " another time before finishing . Slide 52: SIFE YOU !!