Ethics research Ethics Husssein Sabit

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Ethical Considerations of Stem Cell Research:

Ethical Considerations of Stem Cell Research Hussein Sabit , Ph.D College of Biotechnology, Misr University for Science & Technology Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have a remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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Embryonic stem cells come from a five to six-day-old embryo. They have the ability to form virtually any type of cell found in the human body. ( Bone, muscle, liver, neural, gut, or blood cells) Undifferentiated cells Proliferate indefinitely in culture Types of Stem Cells Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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Embryonic germ cells are derived from the part of a human embryo or fetus that will ultimately produce eggs or sperm (gametes). Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found among specialized or differentiated cells in a tissue or organ after birth. T hey appear to have a more restricted ability to produce different cell types and to self-renew. Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

A hint for applications:

A hint for applications Growing tissues for transplantation purposes. Treating disease because of defects in one of just a few cells types: Juvenile onset diabetes mellitus Parkinson's disease Replacing faulty cells with healthy ones Failing heart and other organs Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

Besides curing disease, can stem cells be used for other things?:

Besides curing disease, can stem cells be used for other things? Shedding light on abnormal cell growth and could help treat or prevent birth defects and cancer. Could be used for testing pharmaceutical products fast in comparison to animal trails. Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

Potentialities :

Potentialities Totipotent Each cell can develop into a new individual Cells from early (1-3 days) embryos Pluripotent Cells can form any (over 200) cell types Some cells of blastocyst (5 to 14 days) Multipotent Cells differentiated, but can form a number of other tissues Fetal tissue, cord blood, and adult stem cells Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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Scientific Ethical Legal Religious The four main considerations Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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Scientific The reason we age is because our cells do age. If adult stem cells are used in therapies, will the tissues created from those cells age and malfunction more quickly? Scientists don't yet know how long different stem cell treatments might last? Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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Beneficence Physician-centered decisions Non- maleficence First Do No Harm Autonomy Patient’s right to self- determination Justice Fairness Ethical Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

The First Bioethicist:

" A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise ." - Aldo Leopold, 1949, A Sand County Almanac The First Bioethicist ---------- 1887 - 1948 ---------- Aldo Leopold Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

The stem cell research POINEER:

James Thompson The stem cell research POINEER Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

Evolution of Ethical Priorities:

Evolution of Ethical Priorities 1950s-1960s 1970s-1980s 1990s 2000-2010 2010- Beneficence Autonomy Social Justice Autonomy Beneficence Social justice Social justice Autonomy Beneficence Social control Autonomy Beneficence ??????????? Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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Legal 1993 – President Clinton lifted the ban 1994 – the Human Embryo Research Panel favored research, but Clinton overrode the panel 1995 – Congress banned federal funding Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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August 25, 2000, President Clinton allowed funding of research based on cells from (aborted) human fetal lines, but not embryonic cells On August 9, 2001, President Bush Allow Federal funds to be used only for research on existing human embryonic stem cell. Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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Barack Obama, officially announced that his administration is removing all restrictions on the federal funding of human embryonic stem cell research. "medical miracles do not happen simply by accident," says Obama Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

Embryonic Research Cloning Laws Worldwide:

Embryonic Research Cloning Laws Worldwide Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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Muslim tends toward pragmatism in particular context, e.g. goals of marriage, procreation Catholic (varies over time) tends to identify point of life at conception Jewish tends to favor research, early intervention, prenatal diagnosis, and treatment Buddhist many considerations and interpretations. Religious Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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It is already in the marketplace so it entered into the business arena. Stem Cell Research Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

From Clone to Man:

From Clone to Man Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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Do we need this scenario? NO Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

The better able we are not to clone Human but rather to relieve human suffering:

The better able we are not to clone Human but rather to relieve human suffering Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

Core arguments against research in human stem cells:

Core arguments against research in human stem cells Slopes are slippery and the future is thus dangerous. Can not use the bodies of others even for good. Money and the marketplace are inherently corrupting. Nature is both fixed and sacred. Women could face particular abuse. Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

The “hot” Issues in patents on stem cells:

The “ hot ” Issues in patents on stem cells “No Patents on Life ” Cloning of Humans Germ line modifications Industrial “production” of embryos for commercial and industrial purposes Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

“No patents on life”:

“No patents on life” Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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?? Fear of .. Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

Can we vs. should we :

Should we ask the ethical questions before attempting the “ can we ” questions? Can we vs. should we Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

Slide 31:

Stem cells may be used to treat the tissue toxicity resulting from cancer therapy. It may provide insights as to why cancer cells survive despite aggressive treatments. Such information will help in developing treatments and cures for cancer. How can stem cell research help cancer patients like Andrea Untrojb ? Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

How can stem cell research help juvenile diabetes patients like the Singer twins?:

How can stem cell research help juvenile diabetes patients like the Singer twins? Embryonic stem cell research will help cure juvenile diabetes by turning embryonic stem cells into healthy Insulin producing islets that can be transplanted into people with the disease. Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

How can stem cell research help Canavan patients like Max Randell?:

How can stem cell research help Canavan patients like Max Randell ? Max Randell is suffering from Canavan disease, and will likely not see his 10th birthday. Canavan’s is characterized by the spongy degeneration of the brain caused by an enzyme deficiency constantly attacking Max's brain. Stem cells may offer Max a chance at life because of their unique ability to repair damage already done to the brain. Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

Adult stem cell research:

Adult stem cell research The ethical debate and questions surrounding the issue are focused on embryonic stem cells . Adult stem cell research is, in general, "not morally difficult. Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

Answer the following questions:

Answer the following questions Is it acceptable to destroy a human embryo for research if it will someday result in lifesaving therapies? Under what circumstances can embryos be ethically donated for research? Is it right to use somatic cell nuclear transfer, or SCNT, to produce embryos for research? Can we ensure that stem cell therapies won't form tumors in the body? Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

Conclusion:

Conclusion Exciting developments in the field of stem cell reasearch are now occurring. Most of these are coming from non-controversial research using adult stem cells . You have a responsibility to consider the ethics and the science involved and to act accordingly. Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

Conclusion:

Conclusion How about human genetic enhancement? How about making human-animal chimeras? If any of these things are wrong, what makes them wrong? Why use a technology that offends a significant percentage of the population when there are other alternatives available? Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

What Should We Do?:

What Should We Do? Have educated, rational, and critical discussions of the relative merits of ways to allow some human embryonic stem cell research to continue. Find a way to proceed carefully and ethically based on knowledge, compromise and consensus without extreme dogma entering into the argument . Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

Cont.:

Cont. Use embryonic stem cell research only as a means to eventually learn how to properly modify adult stem cells to perform a similar function. Permit carefully regulated research and some clinical trials to enable us to see the eventual solutions. Then, put modified adult stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning into use as rapidly as possible to save lives and improve the general quality of life! Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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Hussein Sabit, Ph.D -- MUST, Egypt

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