Natural Resources

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this is for class 9th

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Science Project Work

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Kv No.1 Army Jodhpur (RAj.)

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Natural Resources

Earth :

Earth Out of known planet of Solar system. Earth is only where life exist the life on the earth require appropriate temperature and food for sustenance.

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Environment Everything which surrounds us is collectively termed as the environment. Environment constitutes life support for us, since it is from the environment that we get food to eat, water to drink, air to breath and all other requirements of day-to-day life.

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biosphere. Living things are found where these three exist. This life –supporting zone of the earth where the atmosphere ,the hydrosphere and the lithosphere interact and make life possible , is known as biosphere.

Lithosphere, Hydrosphere & Atmosphere:

Lithosphere, Hydrosphere & Atmosphere Lithosphere is the outer solid crust of earth, it is also called land. Its upper weathered part forms the soil. Hydrosphere – The water covered part of the earth crust is called Hydrosphere. About 75% of Earth’s surface is covered with water. Atmosphere- The outer cover of air around the Earth surface is called atmosphere .

Component of Biosphere:

Component of Biosphere BIOTIC COMPONENT- The biotic component of the environment are plants ,animal including human beings and microorganism {e.g., viruses, bacteria, single-celled {microscopic} plants, fungi, and animals}. ABIOTIC COMPONENT- The abiotic component of the environment are air , water, soil, light and temperature .

The Breath of life : Air:

The Breath of life : Air At the earth's surfaces the atmosphere consists mainly of nitrogen , oxygen , carbon dioxide and water vapors and rare gasses a part from these gasses the atmosphere contain small amount of{CO2 and water vapors } near the surface of the earth the composition of atmosphere;-

Carbon dioxide:

Carbon dioxide (i)The major component on venus and mars is carbon dioxide constituting upto 95-97% of the atmosphere .Its consequences are no life and supporting condition.

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( ii) The percentage of carbon dioxide is very less about 0.033% still it is maintained to be fixed. Production of Carbon dioxide- In atmosphere Carbon dioxide is produced by two processes- During the breakdown of food .Eukaryotic cells get energy by breakdown of glucose and carbon dioxide is produced. Some prokaryotic cells also produce Carbon dioxide. By combustion of fuels- Carbon dioxide is produced by deliberate combustion of fuels by human being to get energy

Consumption of carbon dioxide :

Consumption of carbon dioxide In atmosphere Carbon dioxide is consumed into two ways Photosynthesis process by green plants. (ii) Animals use Carbon dioxide dissolved in sea water to make their shells.

Role of atmosphere in climate control:

Role of atmosphere in climate control Atmosphere help in maintaining that climate by retaining the heat it is because it is bad conductor of heat. It also act as temperature buffer. This help in checking excessive rise of temperature during the day and excessive cooling during the night. Because of it average temperature of earth remain fairly steady during the day and even during the course of whole year.

ACTIVITY:

ACTIVITY To measure the gain and loss of heat by (i) Water (ii) Sand . Material required – beakers , Thermometers, Sand ,Water ,Glass bottle etc Procedure - (i)Take beaker full of water. (ii)A beaker full of sand/soil. (iii)A closed bottle containing a thermometer. Keep them in bright sunlight for 3 hours. (iv)Now measure the temperature of all three vessels.Also take the temperature in shade at the same time.

THE MOVEMENT OF AIR : WINDS:

THE MOVEMENT OF AIR : WINDS A cool evening breathe after a hot day or rain after a few days of hot weather bring us considerable following question may strike our mind: 1) What causes the movement of air ? Ans :- All the phenomena in above mentioned question are the result of changes that take place in our atmosphere due to the heating of air, and the formation of water vapors.

Activity:

Activity Formation of air current due to uneven heating of air. Material required- A beaker or wide mouthed bottle,a candle,box of matches,incense stick. Procedure- Fix a burning candle in a beaker or wide mounted bottle. Light an incense stick. Take it first to edge of the beaker, then half may towards middle and finally above the candle flame.

RAIN:

RAIN It is falling down of water droplets from clouds when the water vapor present in them cool down and condense to become heavy. Water vapour are formed in huge amount from the surface of water bodies and wet areas due to their heating during the day time a lot of vapor are also lost by transpiration from plant exhaled air and perspiration of animal.

Q) How clouds are formed and bring us rain? :

Q) How clouds are formed and bring us rain? Ans;- Water bodies such as ocean , seas , lakes , rivers , ponds, pool, etc are heated by sun raise and water evaporation and goes into air in the form of water vapour .As the vapour rises it expand and cools and change to water droplets .When the droplets have grown and changed to big size they fall down and it is called raining.

Activity :-:

Activity :- Effect of low pressure Material required- Empty mineral water bottle, incense stick , box of matches , 5-10ml water Procedure- 1 .Pour 5-10ml water into an empty mineral water bottle. 2.Close the bottle tightly. 3.Shake the bottle well or keep in sun for about 10 min.this causes evaporation of a major part of water so that bottle becomes saturated with water vapours. 4.Take a lighted incense stick open the cap of the bottle and introduce some smoke of incense stick into it. Quickly replace the cap tightly. Press the bottle between your hands and then release the pressure. 5.Repeat the process 2-3times.

Air pollution:

Air pollution An undesirable change in the physical chemical and biological characteristic of air is known as air pollution. The substance that pollute air are called air pollutants. Air pollution is caused by –(i)Natural processes i.e forest fire , smoking from volcanoes , dust storm and decay of organic mater, (ii) Human activities - Deforestation , Urbanization , Industrialisation .

Carries many undesirable substances or impurities which are not good for our health .The chief constituents of the impurities of air include (1)carbon dioxide (2)carbonmonoxide,(3)oxides of sulphur,(4) oxides of nitrogen;(5)fluoride compounds;(6)metals(e.G.’ Lead nickel ,arsenic , cadmium , tin , etc .’) (7)hydrocarbons(e.G., Benzene) ,(8) particulate matter (dust , grit , fly ash) and (9)toxicants, all these impurities are called pollutants. They cause air pollution.:

Carries many undesirable substances or impurities which are not good for our health .The chief constituents of the impurities of air include (1)carbon dioxide (2)carbonmonoxide,(3)oxides of sulphur,(4) oxides of nitrogen;(5)fluoride compounds;(6)metals(e.G.’ Lead nickel ,arsenic , cadmium , tin , etc .’) (7)hydrocarbons(e.G., Benzene) ,(8) particulate matter (dust , grit , fly ash) and (9)toxicants, all these impurities are called pollutants. They cause air pollution.

Acid Rain -:

Acid Rain - Fossil fuel such as coal and petroleum contain small amount of nitrogen and sulphur.On combustion of fossil fuels sulphur and nitrogen form their oxides which dissolve in rain water. Smog- Smog is the combination of smoke particle with the tiny droplets of fog containing poisonous gases discharge by the burning of fossil fuels. Smoke + Fog =Smog

Activity:

Activity Effect of air pollution on Lichens- Lichens occurs on rocks and tree bark as this greenish or grayish crusts in humid climate. They are highly sensitive to air pollution , especially its components sulphur dioxide. Lichens disappears in industrial and urban areas with high pollution .Visit an area where lichens occurs. Compare the growth of lichens near a busy road and some distance away from the road .Study also lichens flora on the side of tree trunks facing the road and the side away from the road. Observe that (I) Lichens flora is poorly developed on the road facing side the tree trunks as compared to side away from the road. (ii) There is laxuriant growth of Lichens some distance away from the road.

Water: A Wonder Liquid :

Water: A Wonder Liquid The oceans , rivers , streams , lakes , ponds ,pools ,polar ice caps , water vapor , etc., collectively form the hydrosphere. About 75% of earth surface is covered with hydrosphere, the main component of which is water. Major part of water is found in seas and oceans .Most of water of our utilization on the earth comes from river , lakes , ponds and even underground wells .Fresh water forms only about 2.5 percent of water and major part of this fresh water is frozen in glacial ice. So a very small amount (0.5 %) remain there for the living being to perform all living activities .

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Water is one of the most unusual natural compound found on earth and it is also one of the most important . The water remains in solid (snow), liquid (water) and gaseous (water vapor )forms . . Water is one of the agent in soil formation and serves as living medium for several different ecosystem .We too use water for drinking , washing of utensils and clothes ,sewage disposal ,irrigation and in various industries.

Activity:

Activity Many municipal corporation are trying Water harvesting technique to improve the availability of water. Find out what this technique are. Select a small area near a water body it may be river ,stream , pond and lake.Count the number of different animals and plants in this area. Select and mark out an small area in sum unused land in or near your school .Count the number of individual each species.

Water pollution:

Water pollution Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q1. Why can pollen grains be carried by wind and water? Q2. Differentiate between:- 1. unisexual flowers and bisexual flowers 2. asexual and sexual reproduction 3. self pollination and cross pollination Q3. How is zygote formed in sexual reproduction? Causes of Water Pollution There are many causes for water pollution but two general categories exist: direct and indirect contaminant sources. Direct sources include effluent outfalls from factories, refineries, waste treatment plants etc. that emits fluids of varying quality directly into urban water supplies. In the United States and other countries, these practices are regulated, although this doesn't mean that pollutants can't be found in these waters. Indirect sources include contaminants that enter the water supply from soils/groundwater systems and from the atmosphere via rain water. Soils and ground waters contain the residue of human agricultural practices (fertilizers, pesticides, etc.) and improperly disposed of industrial wastes. Atmospheric contaminants are also derived from human practices (such as gaseous emissions from automobiles, factories and even bakeries).

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Mineral riches in the soil Soil- The uppermost layer of earth crust that provides essential nutrients to the plants ,is called soil. Formation of Soil- The minerals present in rocks at or near the surface of earth are broken down by various physical, chemical and biological process into fine particles of soil. The following processes are responsible for the formation of soil: (i) Sun-The temperature of rocks increases taking the heat of solar radiation and expand and at night cool down and contract. (ii)Water- Water fills inside the cracks and when it freezes and changes to ice, its volume increases and with the force it cracks the rocks. (iii) Wind-Strong winds erode the rocks and carries sand from place to other. (iv) Living Organism- Some living organism help in the formation of soil,lichens,moss etc. grow over rocks and make them wea

Soil Pollution:

Soil Pollution It is the removal of useful components from the soil and addition of the other substances , which adversely affect the fertility of the soil and kill the diversity of organism that live in it. Soil Erosion- It is the removal and thining of the fertile top soil from a region due to climatic and physical process ,such as high rainfall and wind etc. Soil erosion occurs easily where the soil is not covered by vegetation.

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Causes of soil erosion- (i) Wind causes soil erosion by carrying away the top soil particles . (ii) Rain causes soil erosion on unprotected top soil by washing away it down. (iii) Improper farming or tilting and leaving the field fallow for the long time causes soil erosion. (iv) Frequent flooding of rivers causes soil erosion by removing the top soil of the field near the river banks. (v) Deforestation also leads to soil erosion.

Activity:

Activity Aim-Determination of Soil Composition Apparatus- A measuring glass cylinder of 1lt capacity, a glass rod, 150cm³ of shifted soil ,water. Procedure- (1) Take 150cm³ of shifted soil in a glass. (2)Pour about 750cm³ of water over it. (3)Stir the soil well with the help of a glass rod. (4)Take out the rod. (5)Allow the particles to settle. (6)Observe after 30minutes. Results- The bottom of the cylinder has a layer of coarse sand. A layer of fine sand lies above it. Then there is a layer of slit. Turbid water occurs above the clay. It contains clay as well as minerals salts.Humas or organic matter floats over the top of turbid water.

Activity:

Activity Aim-Plant cover reduces Run off and Soil erosion. Apparatus- Two large trays filled with soil, wooden support, seeds of mustard/green gram/paddy ,watering can. Procedure- (1)Sow seeds of mustard/green gram/paddy in one tray. (2)Water the two trays regularly for a few days till the tray with seeds is covered with plant growth. (3)Tilt both the trays at a similar angle by means of wooden supports. (4)With the help of watering can pour equal amount of water gently over the two trays. (5)Note the amount of soil flowing out of the two trays. (6)Pour 3-4 times more water from a height in both the trays. (7)Note the amount of soil flowing out of the two trays.

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES:

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES The nutrients element derived from the earth by the living organisms for use in their growth and metabolism are called biogeochemical. These biogeochemical are continuously recycled .The movement of nutrients element through the living and non- living component of biosphere is called biogeochemical cycle of matter.

Water cycle:

Water cycle The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle or H2O cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. Water can change states among l liquidvapor, and solid at various places in the water cycle

Nitrogen cycle:

Nitrogen cycle The nitrogen cycle is the process by which nitrogen is converted between its various chemical forms. This transformation can be carried out by both biological and non-biological processes. Important processes in the nitrogen cycle include fixation,mineralization, nitrification, anddentirification. The majority of Earth’s atmosphere(approximately 78%) is nitrogen,[1] making it the largest pool of nitrogen. However, atmospheric nitrogen has limited availability for biological use, leading to a scarcity of usable nitrogen in many types of ecosystems.

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Oxygen Cycle Oxygen is one of the constituents of the water and form about 21%of the air in the atmosphere. It required for respiration by all the living organisms. Oxygen enters the living world through respiration ,it oxidizes the food materials and produce energy and carbon dioxide: C6H12O6+6O2 6CO2 +6H2O +ENERGY The carbon dioxide(CO2) is utilized by the plants to produce food materials during the process of photosynthesis. 6CO2 +6H2O +Light Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 such free oxygen may now again be used in respiration or it may returned to environment as molecular oxygen of atmosphere, completing the Biogeochemical cycle.

Ozone layer:

Ozone layer The ozone layer is a layer in Earth’s atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). This layer absorbs 97–99% of the Sun's high frequency ultraviolet light, which is potentially damaging to the life forms on Earth.It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 20 to 30 kilometers (12 to 19 mi) above Earth, though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically . Ozone layer depletion- Reduction in th e concentration of ozone layer of ozonosphere is called ozone depletion. It is caused by certain chemicals called ozone depleting substances or ODS.The important ODS are chloroflurocarbons(CFCs),halons,carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methyl bromide ,nitrogen oxides and chlorine.

Carbon Cycle:

Carbon Cycle The carbon is an important constituent of organic compounds found in al living being in the form of carbohydrates , fats , proteins , and nucleic acids . Like the water cycle , the carbon cycle is linked to energy flow because producers – including photosynthetic plants of the forests and oceans and chemosynthetic bacteria of deep –sea vents –require environmental energy to trap carbon into sugars . The trapped carbon comes from carbon dioxide in the surrounding air or water.

Global Warming :

Global Warming The greenhouse effect is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm a planet's lower atmosphere and surface . The greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases , and is re-radiated in all directions. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the surface, energy is transferred to the surface and the lower atmosphere. As a result, the average surface temperature is higher than it would be if direct heating by solar radiation were the only warming mechanism .

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Presented by Abhay singh class -> 9 th “d”

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