logging in or signing up STEM CELL RESEARCH saawari Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 934 Category: Science & Tech.. License: All Rights Reserved Like it (1) Dislike it (0) Added: July 22, 2012 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 2 Presentation Description Ethical, Leagal & Social issues Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript ETHICAL ISSUES: STEM CELL RESEARCH : ETHICAL ISSUES: STEM CELL RESEARCH Presented by: Arpana PancholiPowerPoint Presentation: contents Introduction What is stem cells? What is ethics?? What is bioethics?? Bioethics principle Social impact of ESCR Key ethical issues Lawyers and medical ethicists opposed to ESCR World wide stem cells regulations International Legislation Stem Cells Research and Politics The ethical debate How can scientists ensure ethical conduct in stem cell research Conclusion ReferencesPowerPoint Presentation: Introduction Using different sources of human embryonic stem cells for research raises different ethical problems. Experimenting on embryos created for in vitro fertilization but left unused, or embryos, created specially for research raise ethical questions. In the first case – whether using “spare” human embryos for research means a lack of respect for the beginning of human life, and in the second – whether creation of embryos for research is morally worse than experimentation on already created, but unused human embryos. The possibility of therapeutic cloning also raises a question whether it is ethical to create human embryos for therapeutic purposes. When balancing the possible benefit of embryonic stem cell research inventing new therapies, and the ethical problems, raised by this research, a question is posed whether there are any equally effective alternatives to research on viable human embryos that could avoid or at least decrease these problems. The aim of this literature review is to present the main arguments for and against using different sources of human embryonic stem cells and to acquaint with possible alternatives to human embryo rese arch.What is “ethics”?: What is “ethics”? “The rules of conduct recognized in respect to a particular class of human actions or a particular group, culture” one principle enjoins the prevention or alleviation of suffering The other enjoins us to respect the value of human life The Basic Ethical ProblemPowerPoint Presentation: Identical stem cells Stem cell SELF-RENEWAL (copying) Stem cell Specialized cells DIFFERENTIATION (specializing) A cell that has the ability to continuously divide and differentiate (develop) into various other kind(s) of cells/tissues Stem cellsPowerPoint Presentation: TWO MAIN TYPES EMRYONIC STEM CELLS ADULT STEM CELLSPowerPoint Presentation: Generate cells and tissue for transplantation. Pluripotent stem cells have the potential to develop into specialized cells that could be used as replacement cells and tissues to treat many diseases and conditions, including Parkinson’s disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. • Improve our understanding of the complex events that occur during normal human development and also help us understand what causes birth defects and cancer. • Change the way we develop drugs and test them for safety. Rather than evaluating the safety of candidate drugs in an animal model, drugs might be initially tested on cells developed from pluripotent stem cells and only the safest candidate drugs would advance to animal and then human testing. What are the potential uses of human stem cells?What is “Bioethics”?: What is “Bioethics”? Bioethics : “a field of study concerned with the ethics and philosophical implications of certain biological and medical procedures , technologies, and treatments , such as organ transplants, genetic engineering, and care of the terminally ill”A classic bioethical decision: A classic bioethical decision One heart available who should get it? 17-year old girl 40-year-old school principal 70-year-old womanBasic Bioethics Principles: Basic Bioethics Principles JUSTICE : The even distribution of benefits and risks throughout society NONMALEFICENCE : Do no harm Experiment must stop if causes harm. RESPECT :for people’s rights Autonomy Dignity BENEFICENCE : Benefits must be proportionate to risks Potential harm = potential goodDecision-making organizations: Decision-making organizations Internal Review Boards (IRB’s) President’s Council on Bioethics 2001 Independent Citizens’ Oversight Committee: Part of California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM)Social Impacts Of ESCR: Social Impacts Of ESCRKey Ethical Issues: Key Ethical Issues The blastocyst used in stem cell research is microscopically small and has no nervous system. Does it count as a “person” who has a right to life? What do various religions say about when personhood begins? Does science have a view on this? In a society where citizens hold diverse religious views, how can we democratically make humane public policy? Lawyers and medical ethicists opposed to ESCR : Lawyers and medical ethicists opposed to ESCR Linda Bevington , director of research for the Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity has emphasized on “Rescue surrogacy.” Robert George , a professor of moral and political philosophy at Princeton, regards an embryo as being already— and not merely potentially —a living member of the human species .Worldwide Stem Cell Regulations: Worldwide Stem Cell Regulations 2003 proposal to ban reproductive and research cloning worldwide was tabled by the United Nations following objections by Great Britain and other countries The proposal will be taken up again in 2004, but droppedStem Cell Research Worldwide: Stem Cell Research WorldwideEmbryonic Research Cloning Laws Worldwide: Embryonic Research Cloning Laws WorldwideInternational Legislation: International Legislation Embryonic Stem cell research is highly controversial not only in the United States but worldwide. In the past two years, many nations have begun to tolerate, if not to support, the research . In the fall of 2004, the United Nations will consider enacting a global ban on both therapeutic and reproductive cloning . Government funding is prohibited for research using cell lines developed after Aug 9, 2001. Efforts to regulate the research are currently stalemated in Washington. In 2003 there were 71 bills in 29 states Legislation supporting therapeutic cloning research has been passed in California and New Jersey. If it passes in November 2004, the “California Stem Cell Research and Cures Initiative” will provide $3 billion over 10 years.Political Aspects: Political Aspects 1995 -Bill Policy, 1995 - Dicky Amendments , 2001 - Bush Policy, 2005 - Loosen limitation on embryonic stem cell research 2006 - Three bills concerning the stem cell research But Bush vetoed the bill making stem cell research illegal 2009 - Obama removed restrictions regarding newer cell lines but still has amendments restricting embryonic stem cell research Austria, Denmark, France, Germany , Ireland do not allow the production of embryonic stem cell lines Creation of embryonic stem cell line is permitted in Finland, Greece, Netherlands, SwedenNancy Reagan & ESCR: Nancy Reagan & ESCR Nancy Reagan pushing embryonic stem cell research as “cure” for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is due to pathology that spreads from affected cells to healthy cells Stem cell treatments, if they worked, would also become abnormal shortly after treatmentMichael Reagan: My Father Opposed Embryo Destruction: Michael Reagan: My Father Opposed Embryo Destruction “…my father, as I do, opposed the creation of human embryos for the sole purpose of using their stem cells as possible medical cures.” Called media references to ESC cures as “junk science.” Quoted ESC researchers who say that ESC are unlikely to cure Alzheimer’s DiseaseThe Ethical Debate: The Ethical Debate In favor of ESCR : Embryonic stem cell research (ESCR) fulfills the ethical obligation to alleviate human suffering. Since excess IVF embryos will be discarded anyway, isn’t it better that they be used in valuable research? SCNT (Therapeutic Cloning) produces cells in a Petri dish, not a pregnancy. Against ESCR: In ESCR, stem cells are taken from a human blastocyst, which is then destroyed. This amounts to “murder.” There is a risk of commercial exploitation of the human participants in ESCR. Slippery slope argument: ESCR will lead to reproductive cloning.PowerPoint Presentation: Consequentialism vs. Deontology Consequentialist moral theories maintain that the rightness or wrongness of an action is dependent on its consequence How do we measure these consequences? Consequences for whom? Deontological moral theories maintain that the rightness of wrongness of an action is dependent on its conformity to certain fundamental rules. What are the fundamental rules?PowerPoint Presentation: Consequentialist Considerations Human embryonic stem cell ( hESC ) research offers great promise of cures for otherwise incurable conditions: spinal cord injuries, ALS, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s , etc.PowerPoint Presentation: The Deontological Case Utility does not trump basic rules If the embryo is a human, then it has a right to life It cannot be destroyed any more than we could intentionally kill a few children to save many others.PowerPoint Presentation: Consequentialist Rejoinder Benefits of hESC research potentially far outweigh costs Embryos would otherwise have been discarded anyway.About 400,000 frozen embryos in the United States alone Isn’t it better to put these frozen embryos to some good use rather than just destroy them? Lou Guenin , who teaches ethics at Harvard Medical School, argues that: “ We have a duty, when our means allow, to aid those who suffer. If we spurn epidosembryo [human embryonic stem cell] research, not one more baby is likely to be born. If we conduct research, we may relieve suffering. Therefore epidosembryo research is permissible and praiseworthy .”PowerPoint Presentation: When is it human??? At what point does this entity become a human being with a right to life? The point of conception The point of implantation Early candidates for such morally significant points of demarcation include: the initial appearance of the primitive streak (19 days), the beginning of the heartbeat (23 days), the development of the brain waves (48 days), the point at which essential internal and external structures are complete (56 days) and the point at which the fetus begins to move around (12-13 weeks).PowerPoint Presentation: The Soul…. In Christianity, it is often the soul which confers rights on an entity Today, many Christians maintain that the soul arrives at the moment of conception Thomas Aquinas The soul arrives around the third month (quickening) Matter has to be sufficiently developed in order to receive it If the soul arrives at some point after conception, then hESC research may be morally permissible. Some Catholic theologians do not see ensoulment prior to the primitive streak at 14 days. Jewish thought generally sees stem cell research as permissible because it considers the embryo to be genetic material until implanted in a uterus. Some Protestant religions support stem cell research.PowerPoint Presentation: Religious Arguments Some Protestant religions support stem cell research. Ronald Cole-Turner defends a view of the “relative value” of human embryos—more than cells, less than persons. Church Views : Church Views SOUTHERN BAPTIST CONVENTION : O pposes human embryonic stem cell research on the grounds that "Bible teaches that human beings are made in the image and likeness of God and protectable human life begins at fertilization.“ However, it supports adult stem cell research as it does "not require the destruction of embryos." METHODISM: In regards, to embryonic stem cell research , the United Methodist Church stands in "opposition to the creation of embryos for the sake of research" as "a human embryo , even at its earliest stages, commands our reverence.“ However, it supports adult stem cell research CATHOLISM: In regards, to embryonic stem cell research , the Catholic Church affirms that "the killing of innocent human creatures, even if carried out to help others, constitutes an absolutely unacceptable act." The Church supports research that involves stem cells from adult tissues and the umbilical cord, as it "involves no harm to human beings at any state of development."PowerPoint Presentation: The Trajectory Argument The non-religious version of the soul argument is the trajectory argument: As soon as an entity is on the trajectory toward become a full human, it deserves human rights. Two questions : Is an embryo in a Petri dish on the trajectory? Does an acorn have the same rights as an oak tree? It’s on the trajectory, but…PowerPoint Presentation: The Trajectory Argument, 2 Robert P. George (Princeton Law) and Christopher Tollefsen (South Carolina, philosophy) argue that “ the fetus, from the instant of conception, is a human being, with all the moral and political rights inherent in that status. ” It has the full human DNA and is on the trajectory of being a human being. They advocate embryo adoption for spare embryos left over from IVF..PowerPoint Presentation: The Trajectory Argument, 3 Michael Sandel , the Bass Professor of Government at Harvard who specializes in theories of justice , argues: “ The fact that every person began life as an embryo does not prove that embryos are persons. Consider an analogy: Although every oak tree was once an acorn, it does not follow that acorns are oak trees, or that I should treat the loss of an acorn eaten by a squirrel in my front yard as the same kind of loss as the death of an oak tree felled by a storm. Despite their developmental continuity, acorns and oak trees are different kinds of things. So are human embryos and human beings .”PowerPoint Presentation: Understanding the Disagreements We can see this as deontologists vs. consequentialists , or We can see both sides as saying that we must respect human life, but differing as to the definition of human life One principle, two different ways of applying it.PowerPoint Presentation: Middle Ground? The Respect Argument Some who are not opposed to the destruction of embryos per se still maintain that if we can find other ways of obtaining equivalent cells, then we should give preference to those ways. Respect for: Embryos, even if they are not yet persons Principle: although embryos are not yet persons, they will become human beings under appropriate conditions and thus are deserving of respect, but not the full respect given to adult human beings. Other citizens who have different moral convictions. Principle: If two courses of action achieve equal scientific results, and if one does not offend the deep moral convictions of a portion of the population, we should give preference to that alternative.How can scientists ensure ethical conduct in stem cell research: How can scientists ensure ethical conduct in stem cell research Education for researchers Routine emphasis by principle investigators Emphasis by funding agencies Classes and seminars Education for the public Understand the importance of research Understand that scientists are under ethical guidance Communication and open dialogue Understand each others’ opinion Reach a rationale common ground. Last step: Legal reinforcementPowerPoint Presentation: Consensus Statement “ We recognize that human embryonic stem cell research holds promise for research and clinical applications and that some people have serious ethical objections to current methods of deriving human embryonic stem cells on the grounds that they involve the destruction of human embryos. As a result, there will be continuing ethical controversy and restrictions on federal funding. If scientists came up with ways to derive human pluripotent stem cells in a manner that meets the objections of those who oppose the destruction of human embryos, this would both diminish the ethical controversy and enable federal funding. Federal funding will ensure that research will be conducted with uniform national standards of oversight, sufficient peer review, and transparency. Several lines of ongoing research encourages us to believe that scientific solutions to this ethical concern may be feasible and provides a reason for pursuing such alternatives.”Conclusion: ConclusionUseful Resources: Useful Resources National Institute of Health resource for stem cells (http://stemcells.nih.gov) International Society for Stem Cell Research: “ Guidelines for the Conduct of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research (www.isscr.org)” National Academy of Science: “Guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research” (http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309096537)PowerPoint Presentation: References: M. K. sateesh ; Bioethics & Biosafety ; I. K. International Publishing House pvt . Ltd, Chapter 22, Stem Cells Research, Applications Of Stem Cells & Ethical issues Involved In Stem Cells Research Pp No.499-553. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stem_cell_controversy http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v414/n6859/abs/414129a0.html http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19366754 http://www.aish.com/ci/sam/48969936.html http://www.wpi.edu/News/Transformations/2003Spring/stemcell.html HHMI Potent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning and Regeneration http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/hl/2006_summaries.html Scientific American Article: The Stem Cell Challenge, June 2004 ( Lanza and Rosenthal) http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000DFA43-04B1- 10AA-84B183414B7F0000&sc=I100322 Bioscience Network http://www.stemcellresources.org/ European Consortium for Stem Cell Research http://www.eurostemcell.org/Outreach/Film/film_eng.htmPowerPoint Presentation: THANK YOU!!! You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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