APC-Versaloc

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Versaloc™ Very Quick Very Easy AUSTRALIAN PAVING CENTRE

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200 400 190 200 400 190 200 390 190 200 200 190 200 390 190 Versaloc™ block series Versaloc™ block 190mm End Block Lefthand Corner Half Block Righthand Corner 200 400 150 200 400 150 200 390 150 200 200 150 200 390 150 Versaloc™ block 150mm End Block Lefthand Corner Half Block Righthand Corner 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:08 AM Page 2

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Preface Designs shown in the brochure are based on limit state design in accordance with the provisions of AS4678-2002 AS3600-2001 and part of AS3700-2001. The retaining wall design details provided in this brochure have been prepared by Adbri Masonry specifically for mortarless Adbri Masonry Versaloc™ blocks and are applicable only to retaining walls using Adbri Masonry products for residential or light commercial applications up to 2.6m high with Type 1 and Type 2 bases and 200 series and 150 series blocks. Basement walls are limited to 2.8m height using 200 series blocks only with well drained soils. Also included is a table showing compressive load capacity of Versaloc™ walls up to 6.0m high with two load cases using 200 series and 150 series blocks. Introduction Reinforced Adbri Masonry Versaloc™ block retaining walls and basement walls consist of a reinforced concrete base which anchors the wall against overturning and sliding and a stem of mortarless Versaloc™ blocks. Stems are reinforced with steel bars placed vertically and horizontally and all cores in the blocks are filled with semi-fluid concrete known as ‘grout’. Vertical reinforcing bars in the cores of reinforced walls are lapped with shorter ‘starter bars’ embedded firmly in the reinforced concrete base. The length of the lap is critically important and must be shown on the drawings. Versaloc™ block series data sheet Preface Introduction 1.0 Versaloc™ Retaining Walls 1.1 Designs for reinforced retaining walls type 1 and type 2 1.2 Design Details 1.3 Material specifications 1.4 Soil classification of backfill material retained soil and foundation soil 1.5 Backfill Material and Retained Soil 1.6 Foundation Soil 1.7 Drainage system 1.8 Water penetration 1.9 Tanking 1.10 Backfill Compaction and Drainage System 1.11 How to build the Versaloc™ wall 1.11.1 - Preliminary 1.11.2 - Base starter bars 1.11.3 - Block laying 1.11.4 - Bracing 1.11.5 - Grouting 1.12 Exploded view of construction 1.13 Versaloc™ type 1 retaining wall design details for level backfill slopes using 200 series and 150 series blocks 1.13.1 - General layout for walls up to 2600mm high 1.13.2 - Design details for walls up to 2600mm high with level backfill slope 1.14 Versaloc™ type 1 retaining wall design details for 1:4 backfill slopes using 200 series and 150 series blocks 1.14.1 - General layout for walls up to 2200mm high with 1:4 backfill slope 1.14.2 - Design details for walls up to 2200mm high with 1:4 backfill slope 1.15 Versaloc™ type 2 retaining walls design details for level backfill slopes using 200 series and 150 series blocks 1.15.1 - General layout for walls up to 2600mm high with level backfill slope 1.15.2 - Design details for walls up to 2600mm high with level backfill slope 1.16 Versaloc™ type 2 retaining walls design details for 1:4 backfill slopes using 200 series and 150 series blocks 1.16.1 - General layout for walls up to 2200mm high with 1:4 backfill slope 1.16.2 - Design details for walls up to 2200mm high with 1:4 backfill slope 2.0 Versaloc™ Basement Walls 2.1 General 2.2 Drainage System 2.3 Tanking 2.4 How to build the Versaloc™ basement wall 2.5 Versaloc™ basement wall design details for supporting a concrete floor 2.6 Versaloc™ basement wall design details for supporting a timber floor 3.0 Compressive load capacity Versaloc™ walls 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:08 AM Page 3

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1.0 Versaloc™ Retaining Walls 03 1.1 Designs for reinforced retaining walls type 1 and type 2 Designs consist of: 200 series block retaining walls up to 2.6m high for level backslope and 2.2m high for 1:4 backslope 150 series block retaining walls up to 1.6m high for level backslope and 1.4m high for 1:4 backslope 45º approx Boundary Drain Versaloc™ reinforced block stem Base Natural foundation soil Drainage Layer Backfill material Retained soil Boundary Drain Base Drainage Layer Backfill material Retained soil 45º approx Versaloc™ reinforced block stem Natural foundation soil Mandatory replacement foundation soil Diagrams not to scale Wall Type 1 Wall Type 2 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:08 AM Page 4

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04 1.4 Soil classification of backfill material retained soil and foundation soil 1.4.1 Wall Type 1 For simplicity wall type 1 design details in this brochure for backfill material retained soil and foundation soil are based on a common soil with the following typical properties coarse grained with low permeability due to admixture of particles of silt size residual soil with stones fine silty sand and granular materials with conspicuous clay content with an internal friction angle of 28º. Note: often retained soil is used as backfill material if suitable. 1.4.2 Wall Type 2 The backfill material and retained soil design details for wall type 2 are also based on the common soil noted above however this soil is not suitable for wall type 2 foundation material as it results in unacceptably long bases and/or deep keys. Therefore it is mandatory that this insitu foundation soil is removed and replaced with higher quality material such as compacted road base or equivalent. Note: often retained soil is used as backfill material if suitable. Versaloc™ Block 150mm f’uc 20.0 MPa 190mm f’uc 20.0 MPa Concrete base f’c 25 MPa Reinforcement Grade 500 N Grout Refer section 1.11.5 - Grout Specifications 1.13.1 Design details for walls up to 2600mm high with level backfill slope with Type 1 base 1.14.1 Design details for walls up to 2200mm high with 1:4 backfill slope with Type 1 base 1.15.1 Design details for walls up to 2600mm high with level backfill slope with Type 2 base 1.16.1 Design details for walls up to 2200mm high with 1:4 backfill slope with Type 2 base 1.2 Design details 1.3 Material specifications Notes: 1 It is mandatory for type 2 walls that the natural foundation soil is to be removed and replaced with compacted road base material or equivalent to a compacted minimum depth of 200mm below the base or base plus key if included. Density to achieve 98 Standard Relative Dry Density RDD. 2 It is assumed the design external friction angle is equivalent the design internal friction angle due to the roughness of the insitu concrete base on the foundation material. 3 Seek professional engineering advice if natural soil on the site varies from above as different base dimensions may be required. Characteristic internal angle of friction Backfill Material and Retained Soil Wall Type 1 Wall Type 2 28 28 Design uncertainty factor for friction u 0.85 0.85 Design internal angle of friction degrees 23.9 23.9 Design external angle of friction degrees 15.9 15.9 Characteristic cohesion kPa assume c 00 Soil density kN/m3 19 19 Foundation Soil Wall Type 1 Wall Type 2 28 35 see note 1 0.85 0.9 23.9 32.2 15.9 32.2 see note 2 Characteristic cohesion kPa c 43 Design uncertainty factor for cohesion uc 0.7 0.75 Design cohesion for sliding kPa c 0 2.25 Design cohesion for bearing kPa c 2.8 2.25 Soil density kN/m3 19 18.6 ϕ б γ γ Ф Design external angle of friction degrees б ϕ Ф ϕ Characteristic internal angle of friction Design uncertainty factor for friction u Design internal angle of friction degrees ϕ ϕ Ф ϕ 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:08 AM Page 5

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05 Retaining wall designs in this brochure have been calculated for backfill material and retained soil of soil classification as shown in section 1.4. Note: The following poor quality soils are not allowed for in the designs: • very soft clay of high plasticity • very silty clays • very loose variable clayey fill • very loose sandy silts • with characteristic internal angle of friction below 28 degrees. If these soils are considered for use or aggressive groundwater exists an experienced professional engineer should be consulted and separate designs be obtained. 1.6 Foundation Soil 1.6.1 Wall Type 1 The design details have been based on a foundation soil as described in section 1.4 and which must be excavated to sufficient depth to expose undisturbed material which is firm and dry. 1.6.2 Wall Type 2 It is mandatory for type 2 walls that the natural foundation soil is to be removed and replaced with compacted road base material or equivalent to a compacted minimum depth of 200mm below the base or base plus key if included. Note 1: Should a designer wish to analyse a retaining wall with better quality retained soil than the soil nominated in section 1.4 base dimensions different from the tabulated values could be appropriate and it is recommended professional engineering advice is sought. Note 2: If any of the following foundation conditions exist: softness poor drainage filled ground organic matter variable conditions heavily cracked rock aggressive soils then experienced professional engineering advice should be obtained. 1.7 Drainage System It is essential that steps be taken to prevent the soil behind the wall from becoming saturated. These steps should include: • Sealing the soil surface - this can be done by covering it with a compacted layer of material with low permeability eg clay. The surface should be sloped towards an open drain. • A drainage system within the soil - this should preferably be achieved by placing gravel to a width of approximately 300mm immediately behind the wall with a continuous 100mm diameter slotted pvc agricultural pipe with a geo fabric sock located at the base of the wall. The outlets from the pipe must be beyond the ends of the wall unless the pipe is connected to a proper storm water drainage system. For higher walls or in cases where excessive ground water exists it may be necessary to provide another agricultural pipe drain at mid height of the wall. If it is not possible to discharge the drains beyond the end of the wall weep-holes may be provided see items for block laying following. In this case a collecting system eg spoon drains must discharge the water into a drainage system to prevent saturation of the ground in front of the wall. 1.8 Water penetration If considered necessary to reduce the passage of water through the wall for aesthetic or other reasons such a aggressive ground water the earth face of the wall should be treated using appropriate sealing techniques see notes on tanking. 1.9 Tanking Where the retaining wall is required to be waterproof various proprietary tanking methods are available. One such method is a three coat liquid rubber compound incorporating a special reinforcing fabric for high stressed areas. Another method is a heavy duty pliable waterproof sheet membrane fixed to the wall back surface. Surface coatings or sheet membranes must always be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications. 1.10 Backfill compaction and drainage system Backfill material should not placed behind the wall until at least ten days after grouting. • Backfill material should be placed and compacted in layers not more than 200 mm deep. The degree and method of compaction depends on the proposed use of the retaining wall. If unsure obtain professional engineering device. • The drainage system should be installed progressively as the backfill soil rises. • The drainage system behind the wall should be connected to the main drainage system for the site. • It is advisable to seal off the top surface of the backfill material with a semi impermeable layer of soil or earth eg clay. Compact and grade the material to a gutter to provide surface drainage. 1.5 Backfill Material and Retained Soil 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:08 AM Page 6

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06 1.11.1 Preliminary • Excavate to a satisfactory foundation. • Arrange for supply of materials to the specifications given previously. 1.11.2 Base and starter bars • Form the base to the required dimensions and levels as shown in details. • Place the base reinforcement as shown in the diagrams. Fix the starter bars for the vertical reinforcement Y-bars at the correct cover specified in the drawings from the back face of the wall i.e 50mm and in the correct positions relative to the block cores to be reinforced. Place horizontal bars in the center on the cross webs. • Place the base concrete preferably using ready-mixed concrete and compact thoroughly by rodding spading or vibrating. Wood float finish any surface to be exposed permanently. Take care not to dislodge reinforcement. Note: First reinforcement bar is placed at 60mm from the end to avoid cross web. 1.11.3 Block laying • Block laying procedure follows that of the normal practice but without the need to mortar the blocks together. Note: The first layer of blocks should be mortared to the concrete base in the normal way to provide line and level for the remaining block courses. • The blocks are laid with the shallow recessed cross webs at the top refer diagram 1.12.1. During construction it is important to keep debris off the bed joint plane otherwise the wall may begin to develop vertical curvature. In addition as a unit is positioned some small particles of concrete may be rubbed off the units and fall on the bed joint surface. Usually the force of placing the block will crush these particles. Otherwise rubbing the block back and forth along the joint will wear down the material. If a joint is visibly open the unit should be removed and the debris removed. Note: Small plastic wedges can be used under blocks to achieve vertical alignment. • Provided the construction is started on a level surface use of a line and carpenters’ level should be all that are required to keep the wall aligned vertically and horizontally. In instances where the wall is accidentally laid out of line this can usually be corrected by using a piece of wood to protect the wall and a heavy hammer to knock the wall back into line. • At the end of walls Half Sash blocks may be glued to the block directly below using an appropriate adhesive to increase stability. eg 2 part epoxy or equivalent • Blocks should be laid in running bond with head joints aligned vertically every second course. Exact overlapping by half of a block will ensure that the webs and cells are aligned vertically. • Weepholes can be provided by passing 50mm diameter upvc pipes holes through the wall at 1200mm centres. • Reinforcement for wall stems must be positioned accurately and tied securely before placing concrete or grout. Vertical reinforcing bars X bars including starter bars Y bars shall be placed to provide 50mm cover to the backface of the wall and bars shall lap 700mm. 1.11.4 Bracing • During grouting of Versaloc™ walls it is recommended that suitable bracing be used to support the wall. • Temporary bracing of partially built Versaloc™ walls is also recommended and especially during windy conditions. 1.11.5 Grouting Versaloc™ blocks have large cores inside to allow for adequate flow of grout and ensuring complete coverage of reinforcing steel bars. As Versaloc™ requires no mortar above the first course there are no mortar dags on the steel allowing adequate flow of the grout and minimal chance of voids in the wall. The grout must be sufficiently fluid to fill all the voids bond together adjacent masonry units bond steel reinforcement into the cores and to unify the wall into a single structure. It is therefore important that the cores are filled with grout which meets the specifications listed in the following section. 1.11 How to build the Versaloc™ wall 200 SERIES 10.2m 2 of wall 130 1m 3 of grout will fill approx Approx No. of blocks per m 3 of grout 150 SERIES 13.8m 2 of wall 175 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:08 AM Page 7

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07 Grout Filling Block filling grout is designed to be sufficiently fluid to fill all the voids bond together adjacent masonry units bond steel reinforcement into the cores and to unify the wall into a single structure. It is therefore important that the cores are filled with correctly designed grout which meets the following specifications: Grout Specifications The grout specifications are performance based. Adbri Masonry recommends the grout supplier determine an appropriate mix design to meet the following performance requirements. The performance details are as follows: 01 Flow Characteristics The grout shall have a minimum spread of 600mm average diameter maintained for the period of the pour. Notes: • A ‘spread’ is specified rather than a ‘slump’ because it is a more appropriate measure of the flow properties for this type of grout. Your concrete supplier should be able to organise the measuring of the spread. • Do not add extra water to retemper the grout unless the grout supplier authorises it. 02 Strength Grade Following testing by CSIRO on behalf of Adbri Masonry “grout cover” to steel requirements used with the Versaloc™ system can be less than required by AS3600 - contact Adbri Masonry for test report details. For internal applications the minimum strength grade of the grout should be 20MPa. For external applications in near-coastal zones between 1km and 50km from coast the minimum strength grade should be 25MPa. For external applications less than 1km from the coast the minimum strength grade should be 32MPa. For specialist applications or more severe environments an engineer should be consulted. 03 Other Maximum aggregate size shall be 10mm for 190mm block and 7mm for 140mm block. The grout shall be free of contaminating lumps larger than 15mm this may require a screen over the pump hopper. The grout shall be smooth free-flowing and cohesive. Notes: • A ‘cohesive’ mix is one which has no tendency to segregate when pumped down into the Versaloc™ cavity. The concrete supplier should use a high-quality superplasticiser to achieve the flow characteristics required. • Due to hydrostatic pressure build up by the fluid core-fill grout a maximum filling height between pours of 1.8m i.e. 9 courses is strongly recommended. 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:08 AM Page 8

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1.12 Exploded view of construction for both level backfill slopes and 1 in 4 backfill slopes 1.12.1 Walls up to 2600mm high using 200 series and 1600mm high using 150 series blocks Horizontal bars in wall can be laid on webs of Versaloc™ blocks and directly beside the vertical steel Wall base type 1 shown Grout all cores Grout Hopper Vertical X-bars Stem lapped with and tied to starter Y-bars Lap Vertical starter Y-bars cast into base Key Base longitudinal bars Base transverse bars Blocks type Versaloc 90 300 400 340 60 60 340 400 300 90 Note: 60mm and 340mm spacing of end bar because of cross web location. Diagrams not to scale 09 1.12.2 Typical reinforcing steel layout 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:08 AM Page 10

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1.13 Versaloc™ type 1 retaining wall design details for level backfill slope using 200 series and 150 series blocks 1.13.1 General layout for walls up to 2600mm high with level backfill slope 150 or 190 t X-bars Stem 50 cover to back face Y-bars Starter 50 cover to back face Y-bars with 50 cover N16 300 crs B Refer table Refer table 30 700 lap H D Capping Tile N16 horizontal top course only Backface Note: All cores fully grouted. N12 400 crs horizontal 2.5 kPa Surcharge up to 1.5m 5.0 kPa Surcharge over 1.5m Diagrams not to scale 10 Wall Type 1 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:08 AM Page 11

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11 1.13.2 Design details for walls up to 2600mm high with level backfill slope Wall Type 1 Wall Height H mm Wall Width t mm Base Width B mm Base Depth D mm Key Width W mm Key Depth d mm Backfill Slope X-bars Stem Reinforcement Y-bars Starter Notes: 1 Cohesion is difficult to predict is variable may change over time and is dependent on the effectiveness of surface sealing surface drainage and subsurface drainage. These details are based on the assumption that drained and undrained cohesion as appropriate is assumed to be zero for active forces and a very conservative value applies for sliding and bearing capacity. Consideration must also be given to shrink/swell action of clay soils. 2 These details have been calculated on the basis of a rough interface between the base and the foundation soil for which the external angle of friction equals the internal angle of friction . The footing/foundation interface should be constructed such that this assumption is correct. The designer should consider the validity of this assumption. 3 A 2.5kPa surcharge applies for walls up to 1.5m. 4 A 5.0kPa surcharge applies for walls over 1.5m. 5 All wall starter and stem reinforcing bars are located with 50mm cover to the back face of block. 6 All base and key reinforcing bars are to have 50mm clear cover to steel from face of concrete. 7 In accordance with CMAA technical literature and because Versaloc Retaining Walls are fully reinforced and less than 3m high control joints CJ may be ommited. If central joints are to be used than 16m maximum spacing is recommended. 2600 190 1800 350 -- level N16 at 400 N16 at 200 2400 190 1700 350 - - level N16 at 400 N16 at 200 2200 190 1600 350 -- level N16 at 400 N16 at 200 2000 190 1400 350 - - level N16 at 400 N16 at 400 1800 190 1300 250 -- level N16 at 400 N16 at 400 1600 190 1200 250 - - level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1400 190 900 250 -- level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1200 190 800 200 - - level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1000 190 700 200 -- level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 800 190 600 200 - - level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 600 190 500 200 -- level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1600 150 1200 250 -- level N16 at 400 N16 at 400 1400 150 900 250 - - level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1200 150 800 200 -- level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1000 150 700 200 - - level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 800 150 600 200 -- level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 600 150 500 200 - - level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 Characteristic internal friction angle of backfill material and retained soil 28 0 Characteristic cohesion of foundation 4.0kPa Characteristic internal friction angle of foundation 28 0 Characteristic internal friction angle of backfill material and retained soil 28 0 Characteristic cohesion of foundation 4.0kPa Characteristic internal friction angle of foundation 28 0 б ø 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:08 AM Page 12

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1.14 Versaloc™ type 1 retaining wall design details for 1:4 backfill slope using 200 series and 150 series blocks 1.14.1 General layout for walls up to 2200mm high with 1:4 backfill slope Diagrams not to scale 12 Wall Type 1 150 or 190 t X-bars Stem 50 cover to back face Y-bars Starter 50 cover to back face N12 400 crs horizontal Y-bars with 50 cover N16 300 crs W B Refer table Refer table D H d 30 700 lap N16 horizontal top course only Back face Note: All cores fully grouted. Capping Tile 2.5 kPa Surcharge up to 1.5m 5.0 kPa Surcharge over 1.5m 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:08 AM Page 13

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13 1.14.2 Design details for walls up to 2200mm high with 1:4 backfill slope Wall Type 1 Wall Height H mm Wall Width t mm Base Width B mm Base Depth D mm Key Width W mm Key Depth d mm Backfill Slope X-bars Stem Reinforcement Y-bars Starter 2000 190 2600 350 300 300 1:4 N16 at 400 N16 at 200 2200 190 2800 350 300 300 1:4 N16 at 400 N16 at 200 1800 190 2400 250 200 200 1:4 N16 at 400 N16 at 400 1600 190 2300 250 200 200 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1400 190 1500 250 -- 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1200 190 1300 200 - - 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1000 190 1200 200 -- 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 800 190 1000 200 - - 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 600 190 800 200 -- 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1200 150 1300 200 - - 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1400 150 1500 250 -- 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1000 150 1200 200 -- 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 800 150 1000 200 - - 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 600 150 800 200 -- 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 Characteristic internal friction angle of backfill material and retained soil 28 0 Characteristic cohesion of foundation 4.0kPa Characteristic internal friction angle of foundation 28 0 Characteristic internal friction angle of backfill material and retained soil 28 0 Characteristic cohesion of foundation 4.0kPa Characteristic internal friction angle of foundation 28 0 Notes: 1 Cohesion is difficult to predict is variable may change over time and is dependent on the effectiveness of surface sealing surface drainage and subsurface drainage. These details are based on the assumption that drained and undrained cohesion as appropriate is assumed to be zero for active forces and a very conservative value applies for sliding and bearing capacity. Consideration must also be given to shrink/swell action of clay soils. 2 These details have been calculated on the basis of a rough interface between the base and the foundation soil for which the external angle of friction equals the internal angle of friction . The footing/foundation interface should be constructed such that this assumption is correct. The designer should consider the validity of this assumption. 3 A 2.5kPa surcharge applies for walls up to 1.5m. 4 A 5.0kPa surcharge applies for walls over 1.5m. 5 All wall starter and stem reinforcing bars are located with 50mm cover to the back face of block. 6 All base and key reinforcing bars are to have 50mm clear cover to steel from face of concrete. 7 In accordance with CMAA technical literature and because Versaloc Retaining Walls are fully reinforced and less than 3m high control joints CJ may be ommited. If central joints are to be used than 16m maximum spacing is recommended. б ø 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:09 AM Page 14

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1.15 Versaloc™ type 2 retaining wall design details for level backfill slope using 200 series and 150 series blocks 1.15.1 General layout for walls up to 2600mm high with level backfill slope 150 or 190 t X-bars Stem 50 cover to back face N12 400 crs horizontal Y-bars Starter 50 cover to back face Y-bars 50 cover N16 300 crs SL-72 Mesh H Refer table D B W Refer table d Mandatory foundation soil replacement required. See 1.4 Back face 700 lap 30 N16 horizontal top course only Note: All cores fully grouted. Capping Tile 2.5 kPa Surcharge up to 1.5m 5.0 kPa Surcharge over 1.5m Diagrams not to scale 14 Wall Type 2 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:09 AM Page 15

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15 1.15.2 Design details for walls up to 2600mm high with level backfill slope Wall Type 2 2600 190 3100 400 400 400 level N16 at 400 N16 at 200 2400 190 3000 400 0 0 level N16 at 400 N16 at 200 2200 190 2700 400 00 level N16 at 400 N16 at 200 2000 190 2400 400 0 0 level N16 at 400 N16 at 400 1800 190 2100 350 00 level N16 at 400 N16 at 400 1600 190 1800 300 0 0 level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1400 190 1300 200 00 level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1200 190 1100 200 0 0 level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1000 190 800 200 00 level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 800 190 700 200 0 0 level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 600 190 500 200 00 level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1600 150 1900 400 00 level N16 at 400 N16 at 400 1400 150 1600 200 0 0 level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1200 150 1200 200 00 level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1000 150 1000 200 0 0 level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 800 150 700 200 00 level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 600 150 500 200 0 0 level N12 at 400 N12 at 400 Wall Height H mm Wall Width t mm Base Width B mm Base Depth D mm Key Width W mm Key Depth d mm Backfill Slope X-bars Stem Reinforcement Y-bars Starter Characteristic internal friction angle of backfill material and retained soil 28 0 Characteristic cohesion of foundation 3.0kPa Characteristic internal friction angle of foundation 35 0 imported roadbase equivalent Characteristic internal friction angle of backfill material and retained soil 28 0 Characteristic cohesion of foundation 3.0kPa Characteristic internal friction angle of foundation 35 0 imported roadbase equivalent Notes: 1 Cohesion is difficult to predict is variable may change over time and is dependent on the effectiveness of surface sealing surface drainage and subsurface drainage. These details are based on the assumption that drained and undrained cohesion as appropriate is assumed to be zero for active forces and a very conservative value applies for sliding and bearing capacity. Consideration must also be given to shrink/swell action of clay soils. 2 These details have been calculated on the basis of a rough interface between the base and the foundation soil for which the external angle of friction equals the internal angle of friction . The footing/foundation interface should be constructed such that this assumption is correct. The designer should consider the validity of this assumption. 3 A 2.5kPa surcharge applies for walls up to 1.5m. 4 A 5.0kPa surcharge applies for walls over 1.5m. 5 All wall starter and stem reinforcing bars are located with 50mm cover to the back face of block. 6 All base and key reinforcing bars are to have 50mm clear cover to steel from face of concrete. 7 In accordance with CMAA technical literature and because Versaloc Retaining Walls are fully reinforced and less than 3m high control joints CJ may be ommited. If central joints are to be used than 16m maximum spacing is recommended. б ø 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:09 AM Page 16

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1.16 Versaloc™ type 2 retaining wall design details for 1:4 backfill slope using 200 series and 150 series blocks 1.16.1 General layout for walls up to 2200mm high with 1:4 backfill slope 150 or 190 2.5 kPa Surcharge up to 1.5m 5.0 kPa Surcharge over 1.5m t X-bars Stem 50 cover to back face 700 lap N12 400 crs horizontal Y-bars Starter 50 cover to back face Y-bars 50 cover SL-72 Mesh N16 300 crs Refer table B W Refer table D d Back face N16 horizontal top course only Note: All cores fully grouted. 30 Mandatory foundation soil replacement required. See 1.4 Capping Tile Diagrams not to scale 16 Wall Type 2 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:09 AM Page 17

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17 1.16.2 Design details for walls up to 2200mm high with 1:4 backfill slope Wall Type 2 2200 190 3200 400 300 300 1:4 N16 at 400 N16 at 200 2000 190 2800 400 300 300 1:4 N16 at 400 N16 at 200 1800 190 2500 350 300 300 1:4 N16 at 400 N16 at 400 1600 190 2400 300 200 200 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1400 190 1600 300 00 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1200 190 1300 300 0 0 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1000 190 1100 200 00 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 800 190 800 200 0 0 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 600 190 600 200 00 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1400 150 1900 200 00 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1200 150 1500 200 0 0 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 1000 150 1200 200 00 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 800 150 900 200 0 0 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 600 150 700 200 00 1:4 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 Wall Height H mm Wall Width t mm Base Width B mm Base Depth D mm Key Width W mm Key Depth d mm Backfill Slope X-bars Stem Reinforcement Y-bars Starter Characteristic internal friction angle of backfill material and retained soil 28 0 Characteristic cohesion of foundation 3.0kPa Characteristic internal friction angle of foundation 35 0 imported roadbase or equivalent Characteristic internal friction angle of backfill material and retained soil 28 0 Characteristic cohesion of foundation 3.0kPa Characteristic internal friction angle of foundation 35 0 imported roadbase or equivalent Notes: 1 Cohesion is difficult to predict is variable may change over time and is dependent on the effectiveness of surface sealing surface drainage and subsurface drainage. These details are based on the assumption that drained and undrained cohesion as appropriate is assumed to be zero for active forces and a very conservative value applies for sliding and bearing capacity. Consideration must also be given to shrink/swell action of clay soils. 2 These details have been calculated on the basis of a rough interface between the base and the foundation soil for which the external angle of friction equals the internal angle of friction . The footing/foundation interface should be constructed such that this assumption is correct. The designer should consider the validity of this assumption. 3 A 2.5kPa surcharge applies for walls up to 1.5m. 4 A 5.0kPa surcharge applies for walls over 1.5m. 5 All wall starter and stem reinforcing bars are located with 50mm cover to the back face of block. 6 All base and key reinforcing bars are to have 50mm clear cover to steel from face of concrete. 7 In accordance with CMAA technical literature and because Versaloc Retaining Walls are fully reinforced and less than 3m high control joints CJ may be ommited. If central joints are to be used than 16m maximum spacing is recommended. б ø 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:09 AM Page 18

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2.0 Versaloc™ Basement Walls 2.1 General Note: 150 series Versaloc™ walls are not suitable for basement walls only 200 series walls should be used. The foundation slab of a basement can be modified to provide an efficient footing for a retaining wall. In addition a concrete floor slab will provide a “prop” to the top of the wall simplifying the wall details compared to a timber wall. Versaloc™ basement wall design details for a supporting concrete floor are shown in section 2.5 and Versaloc™ basement wall design details for a supporting timber floor are shown in section 2.6. Designs have been carried out assuming that backfill material and retain soil has a characteristic internal friction angle of 28 0 . 2.2 Drainage System As with all retaining walls it is critical that the backfill is prevented from becoming saturated. Steps to be taken to achieve this include: • A drainage system within the backfill. This should preferably take the form of a 300mm width of gravel immediately behind the wall with a continuous agricultural pipe located at the base of the wall. The pipe must discharge beyond the ends of the wall or be connected to the stormwater drain. • Sealing the backfill surface. This can be done by placing a compacted layer of low-permeability material over eg clay the backfill and sloping the surface away from the house. It is also important to prevent hydrostatic pressure under the floor slab. Where there is the possibility of groundwater under the slab then a subfloor drainage system is advisable. 2.3 Tanking Where it is required that the basement be kept dry a proper tanking system needs to be installed behind the wall before backfilling. Refer to section 1.9. An alternative to this is to provide a drain and a false wall in front of the wall for both concrete and timber supporting floors. The designs for these alternate options in supporting both concrete and timber floors are also shown in section 2.5 for supporting a concrete floor and section 2.6 for supporting a timber floor. 2.4 How to build the Versaloc™ basement wall Building a basement wall is essentially the same as building a retaining wall. Please refer to section 1.11 for details on how to build a basement wall. 18 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:09 AM Page 19

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2.5 Versaloc™ basement wall design details for supporting a concrete floor N12 200 crs Floor slab reinforcement Front face 200 series block only Floor slab reinforcement N12 400 crs 50 cover 1000 2800 max. 800 Lap 100mm agricultural pipe 200 300mm gravel N16 400 crs Starter bars 50 cover to back face for N16 400 crs starter bars Vertical stem reinforcement N16 400 crs central Tanking to back face of wall Horizontal reinforcement N12 400 crs Back face 200 Ag. pipe Note: No tanking required False wall Drained cavity Note: Wall blocks and reinforcement as for ‘Typical Details’ above Starter bar to match wall reinforcement above One course bond beam with N12 bar Versaloc™ block saw-cut floor soffit level B Diagrams not to scale 19 Typical Details - Fully-Propped Walls Alternative Details 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:09 AM Page 20

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2.6 Versaloc™ basement wall design details for supporting a timber floor Vertical stem reinforcement N16 400 crs at center of block Horizontal reinforcement N12 400 crs Tanking to back face of wall Back face N16 200 crs Starter bars 100mm agricultural pipe N16 200 crs starter bars 50 cover to back face 300mm gravel 50 cover to back face for N16 200 crs starter bars 200 series block only 2800 max. to ground level Floor slab reinforcement 800 Lap N12 400 crs 50 cover 1500 300 Timber floor eg 140-thick blockwork N16 400crs central T Front face Ag. pipe T Timber floor Pole plate fixed to bond beam Note: Wall blocks and reinforcement as for ‘Typical Details’ above Note: No tanking required 300 False wall Drained cavity A N12 bar One course bond beam using 20.20 knock out block or saw-cut Versaloc™ block with 1-N12 bar F Diagrams not to scale 20 Typical Details - Unpropped or Partially Propped Walls Alternative Details 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:09 AM Page 21

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3.0 Compressive Load Capacity of Adbri Masonry Versaloc™ Mortarless Block Walls 21 This section has been prepared by Adbri Masonry for use by qualified and experienced structural engineers. The information is based on limit state design and is applicable specifically to Versaloc™ block walls with properties as set out in following table using Simplifield Design Method for Braced Walls Subject to Vertical Forces Only refer clause 11.4 AS3600. Versaloc™ wall properties and compressive load capacity Block Width tu Wall Properties 200 Series Block 150 Series Block 190 mm Block Height hu 200 mm Block Length lu 398 mm Net Block Width Less Chamfers tw 180 mm Chamfer Each Face Shell 5 mm Block Characteristic Compressive Strength f’uc block 20.0 MPa Wall Grouted Compressive Strength f’mg 11.0 MPa Strength Reduction Factor AS3600 11.4.4 0.6 e Load Eccentricity AS3600 11.1.1 30.0 mm 150 mm 200 mm 398 mm 140 mm 5 mm 20.0 MPa 8.5 MPa 0.6 23.3 mm Wall Type Wall Height Hwe mm Height/Thickness Ratio Hwe/tu 190 Block Nu Design Axial Strength 190 Block kN/m Height/Thickness Ratio Hwe/tu 150 Block Nu Design Axial Strength 150 Block kN/m 2400 OK 513 286 2600 OK 503 276 2800 OK 493 266 3000 OK 481 254 3200 OK 469 242 3400 OK 456 229 3600 OK 442 215 3800 OK 427 201 4000 OK 412 185 4200 OK 396 169 4400 OK 379 152 4600 OK 361 135 Wall Loading Condition Concrete Slab on Wall. Discontinuous concrete floor or roof providing rotational restraint. OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK 4800 OK 342 116 OK 5000 OK 323 97 OK 2400 OK 469 242 2600 OK 451 225 2800 OK 432 206 3000 OK 412 185 3200 OK 390 164 3400 OK 367 141 3600 OK 342 116 3800 OK 316 90 4000 OK 289 63 4200 OK 260 34 4400 OK 230 N/A 4600 OK 198 N/A Other Loads on Wall. Discontinuous concrete floor or roof not providing rotational restraint. OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK N/A N/A 4800 OK 165 N/A N/A 5000 N/A 130 N/A N/A ϕ Notes: 1 For weather proofing plain face Versaloc™ walling it is recommended coating wall with BOSTIK AQUASHIELD SB40 hydrophobic concrete sealer. 2 For weather proofing aesthetically finished Versaloc™ walling it is recommended application of a single coat of render followed by a single coat of acrylic paint. 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:09 AM Page 22

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Notes: 133710 Adbri ABM1203_Layout 1 9/04/10 10:09 AM Page 23 Flinders Park Kadina Hallet Cove 284 Grange Road Flinders Park SA 5025 86 Port Road Kadina SA 5554 9-11 Commercial Road Sheidow Park SA 5158 phone: 08 8234 7144 I fax: 08 8234 9644 phone: 08 8821 2077 | fax: 08 8821 2977 phone: 08 8381 9142 I fax: 08 8381 7666 Lonsdale Streaky Bay Gawler 13 Sherriffs Road Lonsdale SA 5160 18 Bay Road Streaky Bay SA 5680 Cnr Main North Tiver Rd Evanston SA 5116 phone: 08 8381 2400 I fax: 08 8381 2366 phone: 08 8626 7011 I mob: 0427 263 050 phone: 08 8522 2522 I fax: 08 8522 2488 Mount Barker Westbourne Park Gepps Cross 4 Oborn Road Mount Barker SA 5251 455 Goodwood Rd Westbourne Park SA 5041 700 Main North Road Gepps Cross SA 5094 phone: 08 8391 3467 fax: 08 8398 2518 phone: 08 8299 9633 I fax: 08 8299 9688 phone: 08 8349 5311 I fax: 08 8349 5833 Mount Gambier Whyalla Holden Hill 6 Graham Road Mount Gambier West SA 5291 132 Norrie Ave Whyalla Norrie SA 5608 578 North East Road Holden Hill SA 5088 phone: 08 8725 6019 I fax: 08 8725 3724 phone: 08 8644 0918 I mob: 0412 810 056 phone: 08 8369 0200 I fax: 08 8266 6855

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