Lahore Alma

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Lahore Alma : 

Lahore Alma Presentation BY: Saad-Raza VII-A

Recent floods of Pakistan : 

Recent floods of Pakistan The United Nations has now estimated that Pakistan will need billions of dollars to recover from its worst floods in 80 years - further straining a country already dependent on foreign aid to prop up its economy and back its war against Islamist militants. Over 60,000 troops are involved in flood relief operations trying to assist nearly 14 million people who are now affected by the flooding. The U.N. has just launched an appeal for $459 million in immediate aid, as Pakistanis have become more frustrated with their government's response and President Asif Ali Zardari's trip to Europe.

Flood of Pakistan 2010 : 

Flood of Pakistan 2010 The 2010 Pakistan floods began in July 2010 following heavy monsoon rains in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan regions of Pakistan. Present estimates indicate that over two thousand people have died and over a million homes have been destroyed since the flooding began. The United Nations estimates that more than 21 million people are injured or homeless as a result of the flooding, exceeding the combined total of individuals affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. At one point, approximately one-fifth of Pakistan's total land area was underwater due to the flooding. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has asked for an initial $460 million for emergency relief, noting that the flood was the worst disaster he had ever seen. 50% of the relief funds requested has been received as of 15 August 2010. The U.N. is concerned that aid is not arriving fast enough, while the World Health Organization reported that ten million people were forced to drink unsafe water. The Pakistani economy has been harmed by extensive damage to infrastructure and crops. Structural damages are estimated to exceed 4 billion USD, and wheat crop damages are estimated to be over 500 million USD. Officials estimate the total economic impact to be as much as 43 billion USD.

Slide 6: 

Current flooding is blamed on unprecedented monsoon rain. The rainfall anomaly map published by NASA shows unusually intense monsoon rains attributed to La Niña. On 21 June, the Pakistan Meteorological Department cautioned that urban and flash flooding could occur from July to September in the north parts of the country. The same department recorded above-average rainfall in the months of July and August 2010, and monitored the flood wave progression. Some of the discharge levels recorded are comparable to those seen during the floods of 1988, 1995, and 1997.

Slide 7: 

Floods have submerged 17 million acres (69,000 km2) of Pakistan's most fertile crop land, have killed 200,000 herd of livestock and have washed away massive amounts of grain. A major concern is that farmers will be unable to meet the fall deadline for planting new seeds in 2010, which implies a massive loss of food production in 2011, and potential long term food shortages. The agricultural damages are more than 2.9 billion dollars, according to recent estimates, and include over 700,000 acres (2,800 km2) of lost cotton crops, 200,000 acres (810 km2) of sugar cane and 200,000 acres (810 km2) of rice, in addition to the loss of over 500,000 tonnes of stocked wheat, 300,000 acres (1,200 km2) of animal fodder and the stored grain losses.[54]HYPERLINK \l "cite_note-54"[55] Agricultural crops such as cotton, rice, and sugarcane and to some extent mangoes were badly affected in Punjab, according to a Harvest Tradings-Pakistan spokesman. He called for the international community to fully participate in the rehabilitation process, as well as for the revival of agricultural crops in order to get better GDP growth in the future. In affected Multan Division in South Punjab, some people were seen to be engaging in profit-taking in this disaster, raising their prices up to Rs 130/kg. Some have called for Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited to write off all agricultural loans in the affected areas in Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pukhtunkhwa especially for small farmers.

Flooding and impact : 

Flooding and impact Monsoon rains were forecast to continue into early August and were described as the worst in this area in the last 80 years. The Pakistan Meteorological Department said that over 200 mm (7.88 inches) of rain fell over a 24-hour period over a number of places of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab and more was expected. A record-breaking 274 mm (10.7 inches) rain fell in Peshawar during 24 hours, previously 187 mm (7.36 inches) of rain was recorded in April 2009. So far 500,000 or more people have been displaced from their homes. On 30 July, Manuel Bessler, head of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, stated that 36 districts were involved, and 950,000 people were affected, although within a day, reports increased that number to as high as a million, and by mid-August to nearly 20 million affected. The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provincial minister of information, Mian Iftikhar Hussain, said "the infrastructure of this province was already destroyed by terrorism. Whatever was left was finished off by these floods." He also called the floods "the worst calamity in our history." Four million Pakistanis were left with food shortages.

Flooding Areas : 

Flooding Areas

Slide 10: 

Officials have warned that the death toll could rise, as many towns and villages are not accessible, and communications have been disrupted. In some areas, the water level was 5.5 m (18 ft) high and residents were seen on roof-tops waiting for aid to arrive. At least 1,588 people have been injured, 222,600 houses and 4,600 villages have been damaged or destroyed. The Karakoram Highway, which connects Pakistan with China, was closed after a bridge was destroyed. The ongoing devastating floods in Pakistan will have a severe impact on an already vulnerable population, says the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). In addition to all the other damages the floods have caused, floodwater have destroyed much of the health care infrastructure in the worst-affected areas, leaving inhabitants especially vulnerable to water-borne disease. In Sindh, the Indus River burst its banks near Sukkur on 8 August, submerging the village of Mor Khan Jatoi.[32] There is also an absence of law and order, mainly in Sindh. Looters have been taking advantage of the floods by ransacking abandoned homes using boats.

Slide 11: 

In early August, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus River from severely-affected northern regions toward western Punjab, where at least 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of cropland was destroyed, and the southern province of Sindh. The crops affected were cotton, sugarcane, rice, pulses, tobacco and animal fodder. Floodwaters and rain destroyed 700,000 acres(3,000 km2) of cotton, 200,000 acres (800 km2) acres each of rice and cane, 500,000 tonnes of wheat and 300,000 acres (1,000 km2) of animal fodder. According to the Pakistan Cotton Ginners Association, the floods destroyed 2 million bales of cotton, which led to an increase in futures of the commodity in international market. 170,000 citizens (or 70% of the population) of the historic Sindh town of Thatta fled advancing flood waters on 27 August 2010.

Slide 12: 

Pakistani authorities predicted that additional rainfall was expected to trigger two further waves of flooding in the mid-August, inundating more land and swallowing more villages. One of these new flood surges was sweeping down from mountainous areas in the north as of August 11, and was expected to hit highly populated areas in the coming days, while the second wave was being formed in the mountains.

Heavy rainfalls recorded during the wet spell of July 2010 : 

Heavy rainfalls recorded during the wet spell of July 2010 Heavy rainfalls of more than 200 millimeters (7.9 in) recorded during the four day wet spell of July 27 to July 30, 2010 in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Punjab based on data from the Pakistan Meteorological Department.

Aftermath : 

Aftermath The power infrastructure of Pakistan also took a severe blow from the floods, which damaged 10,000 transmission lines and transformers, feeders and power houses in different flood-hit areas. Flood water inundated Jinnah Hydro power and 150 power houses in Gilgit. The damage caused a power shortfall of 3.135 gigawatt. Aid agencies have warned that outbreaks of diseases, such as: gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and skin diseases due to lack of clean drinking water and sanitation can pose a serious new risk to flood victims. On 14 August, the first documented case of cholera emerged in the town of Mingora, striking fear into millions of stranded flood victims, who are already suffering from gastroenteritis and diarrhea. It has been reported by the International Red Cross that a large number of unexploded ordinance, such as mines and artillery shells, have been flushed down stream by the floods from areas in Kashmir and Waziristan and scattered in low lying areas, posing a future risk to returning inhabitants. The United Nations estimated that 800,000 people have been cut off by floods in Pakistan and are only reachable by air. It also stated that at least 40 more helicopters are needed to ferry lifesaving aid to increasingly desperate people. Many of those cut off are in the mountainous northwest, where roads and bridges have been swept away.

Slide 16: 

By order of President Asif Ali Zardari, there were no official celebrations of Pakistan's 63rd Independence Day on 14 August, due to the calamity the country faces.

Relief efforts : 

Relief efforts Pakistan has appealed to international donors for help in responding to the disaster. Twenty-one helicopters and 150 boats were pressed into service to assist the affected people according to the National Disaster Management Authority of Pakistan. The US embassy in Pakistan provided seven helicopters to the authorities to assist in relief-operations. The United Nations also launched relief efforts. It appealed for $460 million to provide immediate help, including food, shelter and clean water. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visited Pakistan on 15 August to oversee and discuss the relief efforts. A Pakistani army spokesman said that troops had been deployed in all affected areas and had rescued thousands of people. Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani visited the province and directed the Pakistan Navy to help evacuate the flood-victims. By early August, more than 352,291 people have been rescued. According to the Relief web Financial Tracking service, total donations worldwide for humanitarian assistance so far come to $687 million, with a further $324 million promised in uncommitted pledges, as of August 27, 2010.

Slide 18: 

By the end of August the Secretary-General Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) stated that Muslim countries, organizations and individuals had pledged close to $1 billion to assist in Pakistan’s flood emergency. This statement is placed in doubt by findings from the U.N. Financial Tracking Service that indicate that only 3 of 56 OIC’s member states - Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Kuwait - had pledged more than single digit millions. Pakistan’s Prime Minister Yusuf Raza Gilani stated that by the end of August Saudi Arabia's support exceeded that of the US, yet both UN data and data from Pakistan's Disaster Management Authority fail to support this claim. Sun Charity USA is one of the private relief outfits active in Pakistan. Merchandise supporting the flood relief efforts is available through zazzle.com/pkflood with all proceeds benefiting UNICEF in Pakistan.

Slide 19: 

The Imran Khan Foundation is an accredited 501c3 charity that has raised over $2 million towards the flood relief efforts and continues to solicit donations.

Floods of 2007 : 

Floods of 2007 A dual disaster hit Pakistan in the final week of June 2007. On June 23, rare heavy rains and winds swept over much of the country, and three days later, on June 26, Cyclone Yemyin (03B) blew ashore in southern Pakistan. The two storms caused extensive flooding in the country’s southwest from the Arabian Sea coast to the border with Afghanistan. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) captured this image of flooding near the Indus River on July 2, 2007. The large image shows additional flooding along the coast. In this type of false-color image, made with infrared and visible light, water is dark blue or black. The lighter blue color in the north is either water-soaked land or mud-laden water. The desert landscape is tan-pink, while cropland near the Indus is green. Clouds are pale blue and white. The lower image, taken on June 23 before the storm moved in, shows normal conditions. The white streak near the right edge of the image is sunlight reflected off the wetlands around the Indus River.

Slide 21: 

In the area shown here, more than 100,000 people were displaced when 800 villages were submerged by floods, said Relief Web. As of July 4, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies estimated that approximately 300 lives had been lost throughout Pakistan, and 550,000 people had been displaced. Before After

2008 Floods in Pakistan : 

2008 Floods in Pakistan More than 2 million people have been affected by the floods provoked by four days of heavy rains after cyclone Yemyin hit the provinces of Balochistan and Sindh in the southwest of Pakistan during June this year. Many areas have been cut off due to rising water. In Balochistan, the most affected districts are Kech, Jhal Magsi, Bolan, Jaffarabad, Khuzdar, Sibi and Lasbella. In Sindh, districts Dadu, Jacobabad and Kambar are the worst affected by floods.

Slide 23: 

As part of the UN team’s immediate response to the floods emergency, UNICEF started dispatching supplies including tents, UNIMIX (food supplement for children and women), health kits, toilet slabs, jerry cans, water bladders, water purification tablets, tarpaulin sheets and baby blankets etc. to the flood-affected areas. UNICEF supply of emergency items continues to these areas and efforts to minimize harm to children and women is top priority.

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