Atomic Theory

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teori atom smp kelas VIII

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Theory of Atom:

Theory of Atom Atom Atom is the smallest part of element John Dalton Theory 1. Each elements consist a small particles which is called atom 2. Atoms of each element have a same of characteristic, size and mass 3. Compound is a substance that consist of more than one atom. 4. Chemical reaction is not change the characteristic of atom, but only change the composition only.

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+ + Rutherford Theory “ Mass of atom center in nucleus, which have a positive charge” Nucleus + + - Niels Bohr Theory Atom have a central nucleus made up of protons and neutrons. And electrons move around the nucleus.

THE INVENTOR OF PARTICLE SUB ATOMIC:

THE INVENTOR OF PARTICLE SUB ATOMIC J.J Thomson, 1897 -----> electron Ernest Rutherford, 1911 ----> proton James Chadwick, 1932 ----> neutron

PARTICLE SUB ATOMIC:

PARTICLE SUB ATOMIC + - - + Figure : Model Atom - + Electron ( negative charge) Proton (positive charge) Neutron ( neutral/ have no charge) Electron symbol ( e ) Proton symbol ( p ) Neutron symbol ( n )

Mass And The Charge of Sub Atomic Particle:

Mass And The Charge of Sub Atomic Particle No Particle Mass Charge 1 Proton 1 +1 2 Neutron 1 0 3 Electron 0 -1 Catatan : Massa adalah dalam satuan massa atom (sma) Massa elektron sangat kecil, sehing ga massanya = 0 sma

The Mass Number and Atomic Number:

The Mass Number and Atomic Number

WRITE THE SYMBOL OF ATOM:

WRITE THE SYMBOL OF ATOM x A Z X = Name of Atom/Chemical Symbol A = Atomic Number Z = Mass Number Atomic Number shows the number of protons or electrons in its atom. Mass number shows the total number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus.

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Na 11 23 Name of Atom Natrium / Sodium Number of Protons = 11 Number of Electron = 11 Number of Neutron = 23-11 = 12 REMEMBER! Mass Number = Protons + Neutrons Cl 17 35 Name of Atom is chlor Number of Proton = 17 Number of Electron = 17 Number of Neutron = 35 – 17 = 18

Configuration of Electron:

Configuration of Electron + - - Skin 1 (2 electron ) Skin 2 (8 electron ) Skin 3 (18 electron ) Skin 4 (32 electron )

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Example : Atom Natrium (Na), Number of electron 11. + 11p 12n 2 e 8 e 1 e 11 electron

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Example : Atom Khlorin ( Cl ), Number of electron 17. + 17p 17n 2 e 8 e 7 e 17 elektron

Theory of Ion:

Theory of Ion + - - + Electron outside leave atom Atom become the positive charge This state is called ION POSITIVE (KATION ) + - - + - Atom get electron from outside Atom become the negative charge This state is called ION NEGATIVE (ANION)

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1e 11p 8e 2e Atom Natrium have 11 electron with configuration : Skin 1 Skin 2 Skin 3 2e 8e 1e 1e outside will be discharge, so that formed Ion Na + Ionisasi atom Natrium (Na)

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Ionisasi atom Khlorin ( Cl ) 7e 11p 8e 2e Atom Chlorin have 17 electron with configuration : Skin1 Skin 2 Skin 3 2e 8e 7e Outside orbit of electron catch electron from other, so that formed of ion Cl ¯ 1e

Molecule of element and Molecule of compound:

Molecule of element and Molecule of compound Molecule of Element A molecule that is composed of similar atoms. Molecule of Compound A molecule is composed of different atoms. Molecule of element Molecule of Compound

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Molecule Element Compound Monoatomic Element ( He, S, Fe, Ca, dll ) Diatomic Element (O 2, N 2, H 2 , dll ) Poliatomic Element ( O 3 , P4 Diatomic Compound ( NaCl , HCl , KCl , HBr , dll ) Poliatomic Compound ( H 2 SO 4, NaOH,C 6 H 12 O 6)

Isotopes, isobar, dan Isoton:

Isotopes, isobar, dan Isoton The atoms of an element are not all alike. Some have more neutrons than others. These different versions of the element are called isotopes. Lithium have two isotopes with mass number 6 and 7. The symbol of Lithium : Li-6 or Li-7

Isotop, isobar, dan Isoton:

Isotop , isobar, dan Isoton Isotopes Isotopes have different mass numbers but the same atomic number. Example : He 2 3 He 2 4 and

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Isobar Isobar have different atomic number but the same mass number. Example : C 6 14 N 7 14 and

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Isoton Isoton have different both atomic number and mass number but the same amount of neutrons. Example : C 6 13 N 7 14 and