0 Naming ionics Great lecture

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Slide 1: 

NOMENCLATURE OF IONIC COMPOUNDS By John Weide with modifications by Ken Costello

Slide 2: 

IONIC COMPOUNDS Compounds are two or more elements that are held together by opposite charge attraction. Oxygen-8 Magnesium-12 8 (+)10 (-)-2 Charge 12 (+)10 (-)+2 Charge Metal Non-metal

Slide 3: 

Metals combine with non-metals Metals loose electrons to non-metals They then attract because their charges will be opposite. Metals

Slide 4: 

Negative Ions (single atoms) -3 -2 -1 Most of the negative ions have a set negative charge

Slide 5: 

+1 +2 +3 +1 +2 -3 -2 -1

Slide 6: 

For example the oxy-salts of chlorine, bromine and iodine have many trends in common. Look for them below…… The next table contains the polyatomic ions that need to be committed to memory. Remember to learn the name, formula and oxidation number

POLYATOMIC IONS (charged building blocks)Polyatomic ions are mostly made of two non-metals. : 

POLYATOMIC IONS (charged building blocks)Polyatomic ions are mostly made of two non-metals. Ions with -1 charge perbromate BrO4-1 bromate BrO3-1 bromite BrO2-1 hypobromite BrO-1 perchlorate ClO4-1 chlorate ClO3-1 chlorite ClO2-1 hypochlorite ClO-1 periodate IO4-1 iodate IO3-1 iodite IO2-1 hypoiodite IO-1 nitrate NO3-1 nitrite NO2-1 hydroxide OH-1 cyanide CN-1 acetate C2H3O2-1 Permanganate MnO4-1 bicarbonate HCO3-1 Ions with a -2 Charge carbonate CO3-2 sulfate SO4-2 sulfite SO3-2 chromate CrO4-2 dichromate Cr2O7-2 oxalate C2O4-2 Ions with a -3 Charge phosphate PO4-3 phosphite PO3-3 arsenate AsO4-3 Ions with +1 charge ammonium ion NH4+1

Slide 8: 

Ions with -1 charge perbromate BrO4-1 bromate BrO3-1 bromite BrO2-1 hypobromite BrO-1 perchlorate ClO4-1 chlorate ClO3-1 chlorite ClO2-1 hypochlorite ClO-1 periodate IO4-1 iodate IO3-1 iodite IO2-1 hypoiodite IO-1 -1 These polyatomic ions match the charge of the single element

Slide 9: 

-2 These polyatomic ions match the charge of the single element Ions with a -2 Charge sulfate SO4-2 sulfite SO3-2 Ions with a -3 Charge phosphate PO4-3 phosphite PO3-3 -3

Slide 10: 

It is also important to memorize the oxidation of the ions that have fixed oxidation numbers (positive or negative). In particular, those from groups 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 8A and the elements: Zn, Cd and Ag. Use the following periodic chart to determine their oxidation numbers. Just click on the element symbol…

Slide 11: 

N Elements with Fixed Oxidation Numbers La Hf Ta Re Os Ce Ba Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Ir Pt Au Hg Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rb Sr In Sn Sb Te I Xe Rh Pd Ag Cd Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe K Ca Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Co Ni Cu Zn Al Si P S Cl Ar Na Mg B C O F Ne Li Be H H He Ac Rf Db Sg Rh Hs Fr Ra Mt +1 +2 +3 1A 2A 8A 0 -4 -3 -2 -1 7A 6A 5A 4A 3A W Click on element to see its oxidation number(s) Next Slide

Naming Ionic Compounds : 

Naming Ionic Compounds The positive ion (usually a metal) is named first while the negative ion (a non-metal or a polyatomic ion) is named last. The charge on the negative ion is used to determine the charge on the positive ion. In-order for the total oxidation state to be zero, the total positive charge must equal the total negative charge. A simple algebraic equation can be used to determine the charge on a single metal ion. This charge is expressed as a “Roman Numeral” in parenthesis that immediately follows the name of the metal. CuSO4 Cu?SO4-2 x +(-2)=0 X = 2 Copper (II) Sulfate

Naming Ionic Compounds : 

Naming Ionic Compounds The positive ion (usually a metal) is named first while the negative ion (a non-metal or a polyatomic ion) is named last. The charge on the negative ion is used to determine the charge on the positive ion. In-order for the total oxidation state to be zero, the total positive charge must equal the total negative charge. A simple algebraic equation can be used to determine the charge on a single metal ion. This charge is expressed as a “Roman Numeral” in parenthesis that immediately follows the name of the metal. Cu2SO4 Cu2+xSO4-2 2x +(-2)=0 x = 1 Copper (I) Sulfate

Naming Ionic Compounds : 

Naming Ionic Compounds If the positive ion is one that has a fixed oxidation number then no Roman Numeral is used. Everyone should know the charge of fixed ions. These include metals in group 1A, 2A and the specific metals: Al, Zn, Cd & Ag (zinc, cadmium and silver). CaSO4 Calcium Sulfate No Roman Numeral

Slide 15: 

If the ionic compound is binary it will end in “-ide”. However, not all compounds that end in “-ide” are binary. For example sodium hydroxide has the formula…NaOH (three different kinds of atoms). If the negative ion is a polyatomic ion the compound is no longer binary. The ending will be that carried by the polyatomic ion. These endings are either “-ate” or “-ite.” Hydrated compounds are named using a combination of both the stock system and prefixes. A prefix is used to denote the number of water molecules attached to the ionic formula. “hydrate” is used as the name indicating that water is attached. For example, copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate has the formula CuSO4.5H2O

Examples #1- Formulas to Names : 

Examples #1- Formulas to Names CuSO3 copper I’m a polyatomic ion 1. Write the names of the ions Final Name sulfite (II) x X + (- 2) = 0 X = +2 Cu SO3 = 0 You must know the charge on the sulfite ion is -2 The sum of the positive and negative charges must equal zero 2. Determine the charge of the positive ion -2 +2 +2 Next +2

Examples #2- Formulas to Names : 

Examples #2- Formulas to Names KMnO4 potassium I’m a polyatomic ion 1. Write the names of the ions Final Name permanganate If the positive ion has a fixed charge, you are finished.

Examples #3- Formulas to Names : 

Examples #3- Formulas to Names NH4NO3 ammonium I’m a polyatomic ion 2. Determine the charge of the positive ion 1. Write the names of the ions Final Name nitrate If the positive ion has a fixed charge, you are finished.

Examples #4- Formulas to Names : 

Examples #4- Formulas to Names SnF2 tin 2. Determine the charge of the positive ion 1. Write the names of the ions Final Name fluoride (II) Snx (F-1)2 = 0 X + 2(-1) = 0 X = +2

Examples #5- Formulas to Names : 

Examples #5- Formulas to Names Ba(ClO4)2 barium I’m a polyatomic ion 2. Determine the charge of the positive ion 1. Write the names of the ions Final Name perchlorate If the positive ion has a fixed charge, you are finished.

Examples #6- Formulas to Names : 

Examples #6- Formulas to Names Cu2S copper I’m not a polyatomic ion 2. Determine the charge of the positive ion 1. Write the names of the ions Final Name sulfide (I) 2Cux (S)-2 = 0 2X + (-2) = 0 X = +1

Examples #6- Formulas to Names : 

Examples #6- Formulas to Names Cu2S copper 1. Write the names of the ions Final Name sulfide (I) x 2X + (- 2) = 0 2X = +2 (Cu )2 S You must know the charge on the sulfide ion is -2 The sum of the positive and negative charges must equal zero 2. Determine the charge of the positive ion -2 +2 +2 Next +1 X = +1

Examples #7- Formulas to Names : 

Examples #7- Formulas to Names Na2Cr2O7 sodium I’m a polyatomic ion 2. Determine the charge of the positive ion 1. Write the names of the ions Final Name dichromate (I) 2(Nax)(Cr2O7)-2 = 0 2X + (-2) = 0 X = +1 If the positive ion has a fixed charge, it is not shown

Examples #10- Formulas to Names : 

Examples #10- Formulas to Names LiCN lithium I’m a polyatomic ion 2. Determine the charge of the positive ion 1. Write the names of the ions Final Name cyanide If the positive ion has a fixed charge, you are finished.

Writing Ionic Formulas : 

Writing Ionic Formulas It is easier to write the formula of an ionic compound from its name than the reverse. The oxidation number of the negative ion must be memorized in all cases. Refer to the table of polyatomic ions.

Example #1-Names to Formulas : 

aluminum chloride What is the Lowest Common Multiple “LCM” of 3 and 1. Do not worry about the sign(+/-) Example #1-Names to Formulas Al Cl 3 2. Determine number of ions 1. Write symbols of elements Final Formula (Al )x(Cl-1)y= 0 1 If there is only one atom the “1” is not shown +3 If there is no Roman Numeral, you need to know the fixed oxidation number of the positive ion. Next

Example #1-Names to Formulas : 

Example #1-Names to Formulas aluminum chloride Al Cl 3 2. Determine number of ions 1. Write symbols of elements Final Formula x(+3) + y(-1) = 0 1 For aluminum, a 1 is multiplied times the +3 to give a +3 charge If there is only one atom the “1” is not shown If there is no Roman Numeral, you must know the oxidation number of the positive ion. +3 If there is no Roman Numeral, you must know the oxidation number of the positive ion. What is the Lowest Common Multiple “LCM” of 3 and 1. Do not worry about the sign(+/-) (Al )x(Cl-1)y What is the Lowest Common Multiple “LCM” of 3 and 1. Do not worry about the sign(+/-) For chloride, a 3 is multiplied times the -1 to give a -3 charge 1(+3) + 3(-1) = 0 Remember all compounds are neutral, thus the total positive charge must equal the total negative charge Next This formula says that the +3 charge of one Al atom will cancel the-3 charge from 3 Cl atoms

Example #2-Names to Formulas : 

Example #2-Names to Formulas cobalt(II) bromate Co BrO3 2. Determine number of ions 1. Write symbols of elements Final Formula (Co+2)x(BrO3-1)y= 0 2X = 1y X(+2) + y(-1) = 0 1 Choose the lowest set of integers thatsatisfies the equation (BrO3)2 If there is only one atom the “1” is not shown Next

Example #3-Names to Formulas : 

Example #3-Names to Formulas nickel(III) acetate Ni C2H3O2 2. Determine number of ions 1. Write symbols of elements Final Formula (Ni+3)x(C2H3O2-1)y= 0 3X = 1y X(+3) + y(-1) = 0 1 Choose the lowest set of integers thatsatisfies the equation (C2H3O2)3 If there is only one atom the “1” is not shown Next

Example #4-Names to Formulas : 

Example #4-Names to Formulas lithium phosphate Li PO4 2. Determine number of ions 1. Write symbols of elements Final Formula (Li )x(PO4-3)y= 0 1X = 3y X(+1) + y(-3) = 0 3 +1 Choose the lowest set of integers thatsatisfies the equation (PO4)1 If there is only one atom the “1” is not shown If there is no Roman Numeral, you need to know the fixed oxidation number of the positive ion. If there is no Roman Numeral, you need to know the fixed oxidation number of the positive ion. Next

Practice Problems : 

Practice Problems By now you should have an idea of what is expected when naming covalent binary compounds using prefixes. In order to master this naming system you need to practice until you feel proficient in naming compounds using prefixes.

Practice Problem #1 : 

Practice Problem #1 Fe(NO3)3 Choose the correct name for the compound 1. Iron trinitrate 2. iron(I) nitrate 3. iron(III) nitrite 4. iron(III) nitrate 5. none of the above No, you have the wrong oxidation number No, you need to review polyatomic ions Very good, click arrow to continue No, there is a correct answer No, you do not use prefixes next problem Polyatomic Ions Periodic Chart

Practice Problem #2 : 

Practice Problem #2 sodium chlorite Choose the correct formula for the compound 1. NaCl 2. NaClO 3. NaClO2 4. Na(ClO)2 5. none of the above No, you need to review prefixes Very good, click arrow to continue No, you have several errors No, there is a correct answer No, you need to review prefixes next problem Prefixes Periodic Chart

POLYATOMIC IONS : 

POLYATOMIC IONS Ions with -1 charge perbromate BrO4-1 bromate BrO3-1 bromite BrO2-1 hypobromite BrO-1 perchlorate ClO4-1 chlorate ClO3-1 chlorite ClO2-1 hypochlorite ClO-1 periodate IO4-1 iodate IO3-1 iodite IO2-1 hypoiodite IO-1 nitrate NO3-1 nitrite NO2-1 hydroxide OH-1 cyanide CN-1 thiocyanate SCN-1 acetate C2H3O2-1 Permanganate MnO4-1 bicarbonate HCO3-1 Ions with a -2 Charge carbonate CO3-2 phthalate C8H4O4-2 sulfate SO4-2 sulfite SO3-2 chromate CrO4-2 dichromate Cr2O7-2 oxalate C2O4-2 peroxide O2-2 Ions with a -3 Charge phosphate PO4-3 phosphite PO3-3 arsenate AsO4-3 Ions with +1 charge ammonium ion NH4+1 return

Slide 35: 

N Oxidation Numbers (most common) La Hf Ta Re Os Ce Ba Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Ir Pt Au Hg Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rb Sr In Sn Sb Te I Xe Rh Pd Ag Cd Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe K Ca Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Co Ni Cu Zn Al Si P S Cl Ar Na Mg B C O F Ne Li Be H H He Ac Rf Db Sg Rh Hs Fr Ra Mt +1 +2 +3 1A 2A 8A 0 -4 -3 -2 -1 7A 6A 5A 4A 3A W Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Ce Pr Yb Lu Dy Ho Er Tm Np Am Cm Bk Th Pa No Lr Cf Es Fm Md U Pu Click on element to see its oxidation number(s) return

authorStream Live Help