1 EDU 6118 Course Overview and Historical Perspective

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EDU 6118 CHARACTERISTICS OF DYSLEXIA Course Overview and Historical Perspective Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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ASSIGNMENTS  Annotated Bibliography  Two journal articles  Participation in Blog  Case Study Presentation:  Power Point Responses: Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHIES  Annotated Bibliographies - Two journal articles  Dyslexia and the Brain: What Does Current Research Tell Us  Dyslexia  Include these sections  Citation:  Summary:  Assess:  Reflect:  Annotated Bibliographies will be graded according to the SMU L TP grading rubric Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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PARTICIPATION IN BLOG  Each Unit of EDU 6118 has reading assignments from  Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz  Dyslexia: Theory and Practice of Instruction by Joanna Uhry and Diana Clark  After reading assigned chapters respond to other students in an online blog.  See assignment sheets in each unit for response topics and quidelines. Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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POWER POINT RESPONSES  View the power point presentations provided in each unit.  After watching the presentation in each unit write a bulleted list of 10 facts that broadened your understanding of the characteristics of dyslexia. Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE TERM DYSLEXIA EDU 6118 Characteristics of Dyslexia Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE  Late 1800’s  Beginning reading emphasized teaching letter/sound relationships  Reading and spelling were taught as related skills  Cursive handwriting was taught to all students  Shaywitz 2003 Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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 Around early 1900’s  Emphasis gradually shifted from directly teaching sound/symbol relationships to a whole word approach  A manuscript print form of writing began to be used as the introductory form of handwriting  In early 1940’s cursive handwriting was deferred for approximately two years Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program •Adolf Kussmaul 1877 •German neurologist •“a complete text blindness may exist although the power of sight the intellect and the powers of speech are intact.” •First to use term wortblindheit word-blindness

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program •Dr. Rudolf Berlin 1887 •A German Stuttgart ophthalmologist introduced the term dyslexia in his monograph Eine Besondre Art der Wortblindheit A Particular Kind of Word-Blindness. •He describes six cases that he had observed over a twenty year period.

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program •Dr. W. Pringle Morgan 1896 •School physician in Seaford England wrote first article in medical literature on “word blindness” in children •Describes in British Medical Journal on November 7 1896 about a fourteen year old named Percy F.

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program •Dr. James Hinshelwood 1900 •Scottish ophthalmologist •Reported two cases of “congenital word blindness” in The Lancet •One of the cases reported describes an eleven-year-old boy who is dismissed from school after four years as being deemed someone unable to be taught how to read

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program •published monograph Congenital Word-Blindness in 1917 •In addition in 1904 Hinshelwood called for the schools to establish procedures for the screening as well as appropriate teaching of those that were identified with congenital word-blindness.

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ORIGINS OF MUL TISENSORY INSTRUCTION Pathologist neurologist and psychiatrist in the U.S. Observed bright adults who could not read Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program Samuel T. Orton MD

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program Coined the term “strephosymbolia” twisted symbols to describe what we now call dyslexia. Suggested that kinesthetic-tactile reinforcement of visual and auditory association could correct the tendency of reversing letters and transposing the sequence of letters while reading and writing.”

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 In 1930’s  Dr. Orton worked closely with a number of educators including Anna Gillingham  Anna Gillingham  Educator and Psychologist  Teacher Trainer  Provided the educational treatment Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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REFINEMENT OF MUL TISENSORY INSTRUCTION  Anna Gillingham psychologist and teacher in New York Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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• Along with Samuel T. Orton at Columbia University in the 1930’s they developed a non-traditional approach to teaching written language-skills • Taught children to say the names of the letters as they wrote them Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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 Anna Gillingham had already been using multisensory techniques before she worked with Dr. Orton  She and Bessie Stillman co-authored a teacher manual for the “alphabetic method” on Dr. Orton’s theories  Original manual written in 1936  Believed both students and teachers must b e taught one-to-one Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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 Most people think of English as a difficult language to read and to spell.  However a study conducted by Hanna and Hanna determined that the majority of words in English follow a system Hanna et.al.1966.  Hanna et al. found that letter groups form a stable configuration that correspond to speech sounds in a predictable manner. Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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 Hanna’s study found that 85 of English words follow reliable patterns for reading and for spelling.  Students learn to automatically use their knowledge of the structure of the English language to read and spell 85 of all standard English words.  Later students learn to use certain procedures to process the remaining 15. Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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 The alphabetic principle is the understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds.  The idea that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken language.  Texas Education Agency 2002 Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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 The term alphabetic principle refers to an understanding that letters represent sounds.  It implies that letters appear in a visual sequence in written words and that phonemes are ordered in a certain sequence in speech and that speech maps onto print Birsh p. 85. Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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 The alphabetic principle is essential for learning to read an alphabetic language such as English Chall 1996 Juel 1988 Stanovich 1986.  Letter-sound knowledge is prerequisite to effective word identification. A primary difference between good and poor readers is the ability to use letter-sound correspondence to identify words Juel 1991.  Students who acquire and apply the alphabetic principle early in their reading careers reap long-term benefits Stanovich 1986. Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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BASIC FACTS OF THE ORTON GILLINGHAM APPROACH  The phrase “Orton-Gillingham approach” refers to the structured sequential multisensory techniques established by Dr. Orton and Ms. Gillingham and their colleagues  Originally designed for one-to-one instruction for remedial tutors but is appropriate for teaching individuals small groups and classrooms at all levels. Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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 Studies from the NICHD indicate that for beginning and struggling readers this method is most effective  Orton-Gillingham approach has been well respected for over 50 years  This approach is rooted in years of neurological psychological and educational research Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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 Dyslexic people can be very intelligent.  Dyslexic people are often gifted in many areas that do not require strong written language skills—such as art computer science design drama electronics math mechanics sports music physics sales and business. Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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Some Famous Dyslexics • Nelson Rockefeller • Winston Churchill • Sir Richard Branson • Erin Brokovich • John T. Chambers Southern Methodist University Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program ©Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Center Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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©Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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Southern Methodist University Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development Learning Therapy Program

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