MUGHAL EMPIRE

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By: ajayupveja37 (2 month(s) ago)

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M U G H A E L P R I M E CREATED BY: RUPAL JAIN CLASS- VII-B ROLL NO - 21

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION WHO WERE THE MUGHALS? MUGHAL EMPERORS: BABUR HUMAYUN AKBAR JAHANGIR SHAH JAHAN AURANGZEB MUGHAL RELATIONS WITH OTHER RULERS MUGHAL’S DECLINE IN THE SVENTEENTH CENTURY

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Ruling as large a territory as the Indian subcontinent with such a diversity of peoples and cultures was an extremely difficult task for any ruler of the middle age. Quite in contrast with their predecessors , the Mughals created an empire and accomplished what have ah hitherto seemed possible for only short periods of time. From the later half of the sixteenth century they expanded their kingdom from Agra and Delhi, until the seventeenth century they controlled nearly all of the subcontinent. They imposed structures of administration and ideas of governance that outlasted their rule, leaving a political legacy that succeeding rulers of the subcontinent could not ignore.

Who were the MUGHALS ????:

Who were the MUGHALS ???? The mMughals were the descendant of the two great lineages of rulers. From their father’s side they were the successors of Timur the ruler of Iran, Iraq and modern day Turkey. From their mother’s side they were the descendants of Genghis khan the ruler of Mongol tribes, China and Central Asia. However the Mughals did not like to be called as Mughals or Mongols. This was because Genghis khan’s memory was related with he massacre of innumerable people. It was also linked with the Uzbegs their Mongol competitors. On the other hand the Mughals were proud of their timurid, not least of all because their great ancestors had captured Delhi

Mughal emperors:

Mughal emperors The six great Mughal emperors were: BABUR 1526 -1530 1526-defeated Abraham Lodi and his Afghan supporters at Panipat. 1527-defeated Rana Sanga, Rajput rulers and allies at Khanua. 1528-defeated the Rajputs at Chanderi, established hid control over Delhi and Agra before his death.

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HUMAYUN 1530-1540, 1555-1556 Humayun divided his inheritance according to the will of his father. His brothers were each given a province. Sher Khan defeated Humayun at Chausa and Kanauj, forcing him to flee to Iran. In Iran Humayun received help from Safavid Shah. He recaptured Delhi in 1555 but died the next year after an accident in his building.

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AKBAR 1556-1605 Akbar was only 13 years old when he became the emperor, his government was also known as the petticot government . His reign can be divided into t hree period: (1)1556-1570 - Akbar became independent of the regent Bairam Khan and other members of his domestic staff. Military campaigns were launched against the suris and other afghans, against the neighboring kingdoms of Malwa and Gondwana, and to suppress the revolt of his half brother Mirza Hakim and the Uzbegs. In 1568 the Sisodiya capital of Chittor was seized and in 1569 Ranthambhor.

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(2) 1570-1585 - military campaigns in Gujarat were followed by campaigns in the east in Bihar, Bengal and Orissa.These campaigns were complicated by the 1579-1580 revolt in support of Mirza Hakim. ( 3)1585-1605 - expansion of Akbar's empire. Campaigns were launched in north-west. Qandahar was seized from the Safavids, Kashmir was annexed also as Kabul,after the death of Mirza Hakim. Campaigns in the Deccan started and Berrar, Khandesh and parts of Ahmadnagar was annexed. In the last years of his reign Akbar was distracted by the rebellion of prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir

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Jahangir 1605-1627 Military campaigns started by Akbar continued. The Sisodiya ruler of Mewar, Amar Singh, accepted Mughal service. Less successful campaigns against the Sikhs, the ahoms and the Ahmadnagar followed. Prince Khurram the future emperor Shah Jahan, rebelled in the last years of his reign The efforts of Nur Jahan , Jahangir's wife to marginalize him were unsuccessful.

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Shah jahan 1627-1658 Mughal campaigns continued in the Deccan under Shah Jahan. Campaigns were launched against Ahmadnagar.IN 1657-1658, there was conflict over succession amongst Shah Jahan’s sons. Aurangzeb was victorious and his three brothers including Dara Shukoh, were killed.Shah jahan was imprisoned for the rest of his life in Agra.

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Aurangzeb 1658-1707 Prince Akbar rebelled against Aurangzeb and received support from the Marathas and he Deccan sultanate. He finally fled to Safavid Iran . His death was followed by a succession conflict amongst his sons.

Mughal’s relations with other rulers:

Mughal’s relations with other rulers When the Mughals become powerful many other rulers also joined them voluntarily The Rajputs are a good example of this. Many of them married their daughters into the Mughal family and received high positions. But many resisted as well. The Sisodiya rajputs refused to accept Mughal authority for a long time. Once defeated they were honorably treated by the Mughals, given their lands back as assignments

Mughal’s decline in seventeenth century:

Mughal’s decline in seventeenth century The administrative and the military efficiency of the Mughal empire led to great economic and commercial prosperity. International travelers described it as the fabled land of wealth. But these same visitors also appalled at the state of poverty that existed side by side with the greatest opulence. The enormous wealth and resources commanded by the Mughal elite made them an extremely powerful group of people's the authority of Mughal emperor slowly declined, the servants emerged as powerful centers of power in their region. They constituted new dynasties and held command of provinces like Hyderabad and Awadh. By the eighteenth century the provinces of the empire had consolidated their independent political identities. This led to the decline of Mughal empire

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Thank You