States Of Matter

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Name: Pratik Vilasrao Somwanshi Class : 9th Subject: Science Roll No:12 Guided by : Kabade sir.:

Name: Pratik Vilasrao Somwanshi Class : 9 th Subject: Science Roll No:12 Guided by : Kabade sir.

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Science project

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This project is done to study different the states of matter . Common states of matter:- i ) solid . ii ) liquid . iii ) gaseous . Two more states of matter are present .They are as follows:- Plasma state. Bose- Einstein Condensate.

Solid state of matter:

Solid state of matter Solid matter is characterized by resistance to any change in shape, caused by strong attraction between the molecules of which it is composed. Molecules of his state are closely bound to each other. It is hard, has definite shape and volume. This state has no compressibility.

Liquid state of matter:

Liquid state of matter Matter does not resist forces that act to change its shape, because the molecules are free to move with respect to each other . Molecules of this state are less closely bound with each other compared to solid state. It takes shape of the container in which it is stored. It does not have definite shape but has definite volume. It has more compressibility as compared to solid state.

Gaseous state of matter:

Gaseous state of matter In gaseous state, molecules are widely dispersed and move freely, offer no resistance to change of shape and little resistance to change of volume. Molecules move freely . It has no definite shape and volume. It is highly compressible.

Plasma state of matter:

Plasma state of matter A plasma is any substance (usually a gas) whose atoms have one or more electrons detached and therefore become ionized. The detached electrons remain, however, in the gas volume that in an overall sense remains electrically neutral.

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A plasma can also be created by heating a neutral gas to very high temperatures. Usually the required temperatures are too high to be applied externally, and the gas is heated internally by the injection of high-speed ions or electrons that collide with the gas particles, increasing their thermal energy .

Bose-Einstein Condensate :

Bose-Einstein Condensate In 1995 American physicists used particle traps to cool a sample of rubidium atoms to a temperature near absolute zero (-273°C, or –459°F). (Absolute zero is the temperature at which all motion stops.) When the scientists cooled the rubidium atoms to such a low temperature, the atoms slowed almost to a stop. The scientists knew that the momentum of the atoms, which is related to their speed, was close to zero.

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At this point, a special rule of quantum physics, called the uncertainty principle, greatly affected the positions of the atoms. This rule states that the momentum and position of a particle both cannot have precise values at the same time. The scientists had a fairly precise value for the atom’s momentum (nearly zero), so the positions of the atoms became very imprecise. The position of each atom could be described as a large, fuzzy cloud of probability. The atoms were very close together in the trap, so the probability clouds of many atoms overlapped one another. It was impossible for the scientists to tell where one atom ended and another began. In effect, the atoms formed one huge particle. This new state of matter is called a Bose-Einstein condensate.

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Thank You The end

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