Presentation on Greenhouse gases effects By Ruby Jacob: Presentation on Greenhouse gases effects By Ruby Jacob The Greenhouse Effect: The Greenhouse Effect Heating of the Earth due to the presence of greenhouse gases. But how does it happen ?? Shorter-wavelength solar radiation from the sun is absorbed by the surface of the Earth, causing it to warm. Part of the absorbed energy is then reradiated back to the atmosphere as long wave infrared radiation. The greenhouse gases absorb these waves and reemits the waves downward, causing the lower atmosphere to warm. Diagrammatic representation of how greenhouse gases create the "greenhouse effect": Diagrammatic representation of how greenhouse gases create the "greenhouse effect" Greenhouse Gases: Greenhouse Gases The major non-gas contributor to the Earth's greenhouse effect, clouds, also absorb and emit infrared radiation and thus have an effect on radiative properties of the atmosphere. Anthropogenic greenhouse gases : Anthropogenic greenhouse gases Main sources of greenhouse gases due to human activity : Main sources of greenhouse gases due to human activity Burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. Livestock enteric fermentation and manure management, paddy rice farming, land use and wetland changes, pipeline losses, and covered vented landfill emissions. Use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigeration systems, halons in fire suppression systems and manufacturing processes. Agricultural activities, including the use of fertilizers. Seven sources of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion (with percentage contributions for 2000–2004): Seven sources of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion (with percentage contributions for 2000–2004) Solid fuels (e.g., coal): 35% Liquid fuels (e.g., gasoline, fuel oil): 36% Gaseous fuels (e.g., natural gas): 20% Flaring gas industrially and at wells: <1% Cement production: 3% Non-fuel hydrocarbons: < 1% Effect of rising GHGs: Effect of rising GHGs Climate Change or Global Warming Change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years. Causes Variations in solar radiation, deviations in the Earth's orbit, mountain-building and continental drift, and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations . Physical evidence Global records of surface temperature , indicators that reflect climate, such as vegetation, ice cores, dendrochronology, sea level change, and glacial geology. Effects of Global Warming on Physical Environment: Effects of Global Warming on Physical Environment Typhoons and Cyclones Flooding Droughts Effects of Global Warming on Society : Effects of Global Warming on Society Increase in food production. Heatstroke, heart attacks and other ailments aggravated by heat. Warming and expanding oceans forcing populations to move away from coastlands . Effects Of Greenhouse Gases On Ecosystem : Effects Of Greenhouse Gases On Ecosystem Many species of plants and animals face the danger of extinction. Increase in salinity of freshwater will inevitably effect species of freshwater fish and plants. Over a million species of plants and animals expected to be extinct by 2050. Removal from the atmosphere : Removal from the atmosphere As a consequence of a physical change. As a consequence of chemical reactions within the atmosphere. As a consequence of a physical exchange between the atmosphere and the other compartments of the planet. As a consequence of a chemical change at the interface between the atmosphere and the other compartments of the planet. As a consequence of a photochemical change. Bodies other than Earth : Bodies other than Earth In our solar system, Mars, Venus, and the moon Titan also exhibit greenhouse effects. Titan has an anti-greenhouse effect. A runaway greenhouse effect involving carbon dioxide and water vapor may have occurred on Venus. The distinction between the greenhouse effect and real greenhouses : The distinction between the greenhouse effect and real greenhouses A greenhouse works primarily by preventing absorbed heat from leaving the structure through convection. The greenhouse effect heats the earth because greenhouse gases absorb outgoing radiative energy and re-emit some of it back towards earth. Kyoto Protocol : Kyoto Protocol A protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at fighting global warming. Objective: Kyoto is intended to cut global emissions of greenhouse gases.