Review of Chapter 30

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Review of Chapter 30 : 

Review of Chapter 30 Allergic Reactions

Slide 2: 

1.An antigen is MOST accurately defined as a:  A) chemical the immune system produces to destroy an allergen. B) substance that causes the immune system to produce antibodies.  C) chemical mediator that deactivates foreign substances in the body.  D) harmless substance that the body does not recognize as being foreign.

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2.An abnormal immune response that the body develops when it is reexposed to an allergen is called:  A) anaphylaxis.  B) secondary response.  C) hypersensitivity.  D) an allergic reaction.

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3.____ antibodies respond in allergic reactions, and are located _______.  A) IgD; in the lymph and blood  B) IgE; on the mast and basophil cells  C) IgG; in the blood, lymph, and intestines  D) IgA; in tears, saliva, blood, and lymph

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4.Which of the following immunoglobulins is thought to stimulate antibody-producing cells to make antibodies?  A) IgD  B) IgE  C) IgG  D) IgM

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5.The term anaphylaxis is MOST accurately defined as:  A) overprotection.  B) atopic disease.  C) without protection.  D) immune suppression.

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6.Which of the following medications causes the MOST IgE-mediated drug reactions in the United States?  A) Sulfa  B) Aspirin  C) Penicillin  D) Erythromycin

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7.Patients with ______________ are at an increased risk for anaphylaxis.  A) strep infection  B) acute pharyngitis  C) immunosuppression  D) atopic dermatitis

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8.When a substance is injected:  A) the allergic reaction is typically a local one.  B) an allergic reaction is more likely to be severe.  C) anaphylaxis occurs greater than 80% of the time.  D)a delayed reaction may occur, but is usually not fatal.

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9.In contrast to cellular immunity, humeral immunity:  A) involves the use of antibodies dissolved in the blood plasma to fight off invading organisms.  B) is the result of the body's production of leukocytes called T cells that attack and destroy invaders.  C) is an acquired form of immunity that involves desensitization through the use of immunizations.  D) protects the body against foreign substances by antibodies that are located exclusively in the lymph nodes.

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10.Allergic rhinitis and asthma are MOST often the result of exposure to an allergen via the ___________ route.  A) injection  B) ingestion  C) inhalation  D) absorption

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11.Following the primary response to a foreign substance, the body:  A)recognizes the substance as foreign, but does not produce antibodies until subsequent exposure.  B)utilizes macrophages to immediately destroy the substance and eliminate it from the body.  C)develops sensitivity and is able to recognize the substance following subsequent exposure.  D)releases massive amounts of antigen-specific antibodies, which produce a severe allergic reaction.

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12.The chemical mediators that initiate and maintain the immune response are:  A) heparin and T cells.  B) basophils and mast cells.  C) macrophages and cytokines.  D) eosinophils and neutrophils.

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13.Physiological effects of histamine include all of the following, EXCEPT:  A) systemic vasodilation.  B) pulmonary vasodilation.  C) severe bronchoconstriction.  D) increased vascular permeability.

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14.When a person is vaccinated against a disease:  A) the body develops antibodies in response to the vaccine and produces an immune response before the disease can enter the body and cause damage.  B) the immune system does not produce any antibodies against that particular disease unless he or she is directly or indirectly exposed to it.  C) a secondary response occurs, as antibodies are produced and the vaccinated person experiences a milder form of the disease against which he or she has been vaccinated.  D) smaller titers of the disease are injected into the person, which results in the production of antibodies that cause histamine release and a mild allergic reaction.

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15.In contrast to acquired immunity, natural immunity occurs when:  A) the body is vaccinated, allowing it to produce antibodies without having to experience the disease itself.  B) groups of people are immunized against a substance, which protects vulnerable people in the group.  C) the mother passes antibodies to the fetus via the placenta, thus protecting the fetus against a variety of diseases.  D) the body encounters the antigen and experiences a full immune response with all the pathology of the disease.

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16.Histamine release causes all of the following effects, EXCEPT:  A) vasodilation, which results in flushed skin and hypotension.  B) contraction of the smooth muscles of the respiratory system.  C) increased cardiac contractility, which results in hypertension.  D) increased vascular permeability, which results in tissue edema.

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17.Hypotension secondary to histamine release is due to:  A) profound bradycardia and vascular dilation.  B) decreased cardiac filling because of tachycardia.  C) vasodilation and decreased cardiac contractility.  D) capillary leakage and increased cardiac afterload.

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18.Which of the following statements regarding leukotrienes is MOST correct?  A) In contrast to histamine, leukotrienes are less potent chemicals and do not cause vasodilation.  B) Leukotrienes compound the physiologic effects of histamine and cause additional bronchoconstriction.  C) Leukotriene release stimulates the release of histamine, which increases the severity of the allergic response.  D) Leukotrienes attempt to mitigate the negative effects of histamine by causing coronary vasodilation.

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19.Early clinical manifestations of an allergic reaction include all of the following, EXCEPT:  A) pruritis.  B) stridor.  C) urticaria.  D) coughing.

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20.Which of the following clinical signs or symptoms are MOST indicative of upper airway swelling in a patient experiencing a severe allergic reaction?  A) Hoarseness and stridor  B) Crackles and wheezing  C) Facial edema and coughing  D) Chest tightness and dyspnea

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