ch06pt2

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Chapter 6General Principles of PharmacologyPart 2Drug Classifications : 

Chapter 6General Principles of PharmacologyPart 2Drug Classifications Galveston College EMS Paramedic 2009

Topics : 

2/66 Topics Anatomy & Physiology Related to Pharmacology Common Prehospital Medications Common Patient Scenarios Common Patient Medications

Drugs Used to Affect the Nervous System : 

3/66 Drugs Used to Affect the Nervous System

Slide 4: 

4/66 Functional organization of theautonomic nervous system

Central Nervous System Medications : 

5/66 Central Nervous System Medications Analgesics & antagonists Anesthetics Anti-anxiety & sedative-hypnotic drugs Antiseizure or anti-epileptic drugs Central nervous system stimulants Psychotherapeutic medications Parkinson’s medications

Autonomic Nervous System Medications (1 of 2) : 

6/66 Autonomic Nervous System Medications (1 of 2) Drugs Affecting the Parasympathetic System: Cholinergics Anticholinergics Ganglionic blocking agents Neuromuscular blocking agents Ganglionic stimulating agents

Autonomic Nervous System Medications (2 of 2) : 

7/66 Autonomic Nervous System Medications (2 of 2) Drugs Affecting the Sympathetic System: Adrenergic receptors Adrenergic agonists Adrenergic antagonists Skeletal muscle relaxants

Slide 8: 

8/66 Distribution of Sympathetic Post-Ganglionic Fibers

Slide 9: 

9/66 Sympathetic Division of Autonomic Nervous System

Slide 10: 

10/66 Physiology of an Adrenergic Synapse

Slide 11: 

11/66

Slide 12: 

12/66

Drugs Used to Affect the Cardiovascular System : 

13/66 Drugs Used to Affect the Cardiovascular System

Slide 14: 

14/66 Blood Flow Through the Heart

Slide 15: 

15/66 Cardiac Conductive System

Slide 16: 

16/66 Action Potential of Cardiac Contractile Tissue

Slide 17: 

17/66 Action Potential of Cardiac Pacing Cells

Slide 18: 

18/66 Reentrant Pathways

Classifications of Cardiovascular Drugs (1 of 2) : 

19/66 Classifications of Cardiovascular Drugs (1 of 2) Antidysrhythmics: Used to treat and prevent abnormal cardiac rhythms Antihypertensives: Drugs used to treat hypertension

Classifications of Cardiovascular Drugs (2 of 2) : 

20/66 Classifications of Cardiovascular Drugs (2 of 2) Hemostatic Agents: Drugs used to stop bleeding Antihyperlipidemic Agents: Drugs used to treat high cholesterol

Antidysrhythmics : 

21/66 Antidysrhythmics

Antihypertensives : 

22/66 Antihypertensives Diuretics Adrenergic inhibiting agents Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors Angiotensin II receptor antagonists Calcium channel blockers Direct vasodilators

Hemostatic Agents : 

23/66 Hemostatic Agents Antiplatelets: Drugs that decrease the formation of platelet plugs Anticoagulants: Drugs that disrupt the clotting cascade Thrombolytics: Drugs that act directly on thrombi to break them down

Antihyperlipidemics : 

24/66 Antihyperlipidemics Drugs used to treat high blood cholesterol Examples: Lovastatin (Mevacor) Simvastatin (Zocor)

Drugs Used to Affect the Respiratory System : 

25/66 Drugs Used to Affect the Respiratory System

Anti-Asthmatic Medications : 

26/66 Anti-Asthmatic Medications

Drugs Used for Rhinitis and Cough : 

27/66 Drugs Used for Rhinitis and Cough Nasal decongestants Antihistamines Antitussives Expectorants Mucolytic

Drugs Used to Affect the Gastrointestinal System : 

28/66 Drugs Used to Affect the Gastrointestinal System

Main Indications for GI Drug Therapy : 

29/66 Main Indications for GI Drug Therapy Peptic ulcers Constipation Diarrhea and emesis Digestion

Drugs Used to Treat Peptic Ulcer Disease (1 of 2) : 

30/66 Drugs Used to Treat Peptic Ulcer Disease (1 of 2) H2 Receptor Antagonists: Cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), famotidine (Pepcid), nizatidine (Axid) Proton Pump Inhibitors: Omeprazole (Prilosec) Lansoprazole (Prevacid)

Drugs Used to Treat Peptic Ulcer Disease (2 of 2) : 

31/66 Drugs Used to Treat Peptic Ulcer Disease (2 of 2) Antacids: Aluminum, magnesium, or sodium compounds Anticholinergics: Pirenzepine (Gastrozepine)

Drugs Used to Treat Constipation : 

32/66 Drugs Used to Treat Constipation Categories of Laxatives: Bulk-forming (methylcellulose or Citrucel) Stimulant (phenolphthalein or Ex-Lax) Osmotic (Milk of Magnesia) Surfactant (Colace)

Drugs Used to Treat Diarrhea : 

33/66 Drugs Used to Treat Diarrhea Although a nuisance, diarrhea is often a helpful process. Specific or non-specific agents may be used.

Drugs Used to Treat Emesis : 

34/66 Drugs Used to Treat Emesis Antiemetics: Medication used to prevent vomiting Serotonin Antagonists: Zofran Dopamine Antagonists: Compazine, Phenergan, Inapsine, Reglan Cannabinoids: Marinol, Cesamet

Drugs Used to Aid Digestion : 

35/66 Drugs Used to Aid Digestion Several drugs are available to aid digestion of carbohydrates and fats. Two such drugs are pancreatin (Entozyme) and pancrelipase (Viokase).

Drugs Used to Affect the Eyes : 

36/66 Drugs Used to Affect the Eyes

Drugs Used to Affect the Eyes : 

37/66 Drugs Used to Affect the Eyes Ophthalmic drugs are used to treat conditions involving the eyes, primarily glaucoma and trauma. Medications used to treat glaucoma are all aimed at reducing intraocular pressure (IOP). Examples include timolol (Timoptic) and betaxolol (Betoptic). Tetracaine (Pontocaine) is a local anesthetic of the ester class.

Drugs Used to Affect the Ears : 

38/66 Drugs Used to Affect the Ears

Drugs Used to Affect the Ears : 

39/66 Drugs Used to Affect the Ears Most drugs used to treat conditions involving the ear are aimed at eliminating underlying bacterial or fungal infections or at breaking up impacted ear wax. Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin otic) Gentamicin sulfate (Garamycin)

Drugs Used to Affect the Endocrine System : 

40/66 Drugs Used to Affect the Endocrine System

Slide 41: 

41/66

Drugs Affecting the Pituitary Gland : 

42/66 Drugs Affecting the Pituitary Gland Anterior Pituitary Drugs The only conditions treated with these drugs are those associated with abnormal growth such as dwarfism. Posterior Pituitary Drugs The two drugs in this category are oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone.

Drugs Affecting the Parathyroid and Thyroid Glands : 

43/66 Drugs Affecting the Parathyroid and Thyroid Glands Parathyroid glands are primarily responsible for regulating calcium levels. Hypothyroidism leads to decreased levels of calcium and Vitamin D. Treatment is therefore through calcium and Vitamin D supplements.

Drugs Affecting the Adrenal Cortex : 

44/66 Drugs Affecting the Adrenal Cortex The Adrenal Cortex synthesizes andsecretes 3 classes of hormones: Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids Androgens Two diseases typify the disordersassociated with the Adrenal Cortex: Cushing’s disease Addison’s disease

Drugs Affecting the Pancreas : 

45/66 Drugs Affecting the Pancreas Diabetes mellitus is the most important disease involving the pancreas. Insulin A substance that decreases blood glucose level Glucagon A substance that increases blood glucose level

Slide 46: 

46/66

Oral Hypoglycemics : 

47/66 Oral Hypoglycemics Orinase (chlorpropamide) Glucotrol (glipizide) Micronase (glyburide)

Hyperglycemic Agents : 

48/66 Hyperglycemic Agents D50W is a sugar solution givenintravenously for acute hypoglycemia. Glucagon is indicated for emergency treatment when an IV is unobtainable.

Drugs Affecting the Female Reproductive System : 

49/66 Drugs Affecting the Female Reproductive System Estrogens and Progestins Oral contraceptives Uterine stimulants and relaxants: Brethine, Yutopar Infertility agents: Clomid, Metrodin

Drugs Affecting the Male Reproductive System : 

50/66 Drugs Affecting the Male Reproductive System Testosterone deficiency: Metandren Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH): Proscare

Drugs Affecting Sexual Behavior : 

51/66 Drugs Affecting Sexual Behavior L-dopa (Levodopa) has demonstrated increased libido as a side effect. Vardenafil (Levitra) Tadalafil (Cialis) Sildenafil (Viagra) If you treat a patient with chest pain who has taken Viagra recently, do NOT give nitroglycerin or any other nitrate.

Drugs Used to Treat Cancer : 

52/66 Drugs Used to Treat Cancer

Drugs Used to Treat Cancer : 

53/66 Drugs Used to Treat Cancer Drugs used to treat cancer are called antineoplastic agents. Examples include: fluorouracil (Adrucil) mechlorethamine (Mustargen) vinblastine (Velban) vincristine (Oncovin)

Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases and Inflammation : 

54/66 Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases and Inflammation

Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases and Inflammation (1 of 3) : 

55/66 Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases and Inflammation (1 of 3) Antibiotics An antibiotic agent may either kill the offending bacteria or so decrease the bacteria’s growth that the patient’s immune system can effectively fight the infection. Antifungal Agents Fungi are parasitic microorganisms that cannot synthesize their own food.

Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases and Inflammation (2 of 3) : 

56/66 Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases and Inflammation (2 of 3) Antimicrobial and Antiparasitic Drugs Although most diseases treated withthese drugs are uncommon indeveloped countries, they are leading causes of death in third-world countries. They include malaria, leprosy, and helminthiasis. Tuberculosis, caused by bacteria, is increasing in the United States.

Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases and Inflammation (3 of 3) : 

57/66 Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases and Inflammation (3 of 3) NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)—Commonly used as analgesics and antipyretics Uricosuric drugs—Used to treat gout Serums, vaccines, and other immunizing agents

Slide 58: 

58/66

Drugs Used to Affect the Skin : 

59/66 Drugs Used to Affect the Skin

Drugs Used to Affect the Skin : 

60/66 Drugs Used to Affect the Skin Dermatologic drugs are used to treat skin irritations. They are common over-the-counter medications.

Drugs Used to Supplement the Diet : 

61/66 Drugs Used to Supplement the Diet

Many disease processes affect the production, distribution, and utilization of essential dietary nutrients. : 

62/66 Many disease processes affect the production, distribution, and utilization of essential dietary nutrients.

Slide 63: 

63/66

Drugs Used to Treat Poisoning and Overdoses : 

64/66 Drugs Used to Treat Poisoning and Overdoses

Drugs Used to Treat Poisoning and Overdoses : 

65/66 Drugs Used to Treat Poisoning and Overdoses The treatment for poisoning andoverdose depends greatly on the substance involved. Syrup of ipecac Activated charcoal Mucomyst Atropine Pralidoxime

Summary : 

66/66 Summary Anatomy and Physiology Related to Pharmacology Common Prehospital Medications Common Patient Scenarios Common Patient Medications

authorStream Live Help